Eclipse Path Contents

Notes on Revelation

August 11, 1999 Eclipse Path
Austria, Hungary

Austria
Salzburg 2m02s 10:40:56.5 *There are famous salt deposits that have long been worked, as well as gold, copper, and iron mines. Precious stones are also found there. Salzburg province is a scenic area noted for its numerous Alpine resorts and spas. Picturesquely situated on both banks of the Salzach River, the city is bounded by two steep hills, the Capuzinerberg (left bank) and the M"nchsberg, on the southern tip of which is the 11th-century fortress of Hohensalzburg (right bank).
*The city of Salzburg is an architectural gem. Its most noteworthy buildings are a late 7th-century Benedictine abbey, which was for many years the center of missionary activities; the Franciscan church, consecrated in 1223; the early 17th-century cathedral, modeled after St. Peter's in Rome; the Residenz (16th-18th cent.), formerly the archiepiscopal palace; Mirabell castle (early 18th cent.), situated in a beautiful garden; and the Festspielhaus (1960), the city's chief concert hall.
*The city's university (founded 1623), except for its theological seminary, was closed in 1810 but was reopened in 1963. The Salzburg Seminar in American Studies is centered in Schloss Leopoldskron (18th cent.), a rococo castle.
*By c.798 Salzburg was the seat of an archbishopric, and for almost 1,000 years it was the residence of the autocratic archbishops of Salzburg, the leading ecclesiastics of the German-speaking world. They became princes of the Holy Roman Empire in 1278 and wielded their power with extreme intolerance. In the late 15th cent. the Jews were expelled, and in 1731-32 some 30,000 Protestants migrated to Prussia after a period of severe persecution.
* The first mention of Jews in the archbishopric occurred as early as 803 The first references to Jews in the city of Salzburg itself dates from 1282. In 1267 the district council prescribed for Jewish males the wearing of a horn-shaped hat, and forbade their visiting Christian baths and employing Christian domestics. Jews functioned as moneylenders in the city of Salzburg, including among their customers members of the city administration. In 1377 a new place for worship was leased to the community to replace the one formerly used (in 1400 it was bought by three Jewish representatives of the community), and in the same year a cemetery was consecrated. Beginning in 1382 the archbishop began to call Jews to military service. The archbishopric in this period served as a sanctuary for Jews fleeing persecution elsewhere. Despite the liberality of Salzburg's administration, however, an accusation of desecrating the Host (1404) was directed against the Jews of Hallein and Salzburg. In Salzburg many Jews were burned at the stake; the rest were driven out of the city and their property confiscated. By 1418 a relatively large number of Jews had once more settled in the city. In the same year the provincial council extended its regulation on the wearing of a distinctive hat for Jewish males to Jewish women as well, ordering that bells also be attached to their garments. From 1429 Archbishop John II followed a particularly enlightened policy toward the Jews, inviting Jewish refugees from Speyer, Zurich, Mainz, and Augsburg. Jews were given considerable freedom, e.g., they were allowed to acquire houses and other real estate. In 1439 a new synagogue was constructed in the city; in 1448 a mikveh was built in Hallein, where a synagogue also was in existence. In 1498 Jews were, however, accused of having stolen a sacred object of the church; as a result the synagogues of both Hallein and Salzburg were destroyed and the Jews were banished in perpetuity from the archbishopric. At that same time, a wooden image of a sow with Jewish children nursing from it was set up in the town hall. Later reproduced in marble, the figures were not removed until 1785. In 1867 full equality was granted to the Jews. In 1893 a new synagogue was dedicated in Salzburg. After the Anschluss almost all Jews were deported; in November 1938 the synagogue was destroyed and the cemetery desecrated. After World War II Salzburg served as a center for some 200,000 Jewish displaced persons. In 1953 a community was reestablished, and in 1968 the newly rebuilt synagogue was rededicated. The Salzburg university library houses a significant collection of Hebrew manuscripts.
Ried im Innkreis 2m01s 10:41:35.1
Bad Ischl 2m08s 10:41:59.8 *It is a famous spa. After 1822 it was the summer residence of the Austrian imperial family. Emperor Francis Joseph signed (1914) his declaration of war on Serbia there.
Gmunden 2m20s 10:42:13.9
Wels 1m50s 10:42:31.7 *On the Traun River. It is an industrial and rail center and an agricultural market. Nearby are natural gas wells. A town in Roman times, Wels later became a stronghold against the Avars and the Magyars.
*Noteworthy buildings include the parish church and the castle where Emperor Maximilian I died in 1519.
Linz 0m30s 10:42:55.8 *Capital of Upper Austria, NW Austria, a major port on the Danube River. It is a commercial and industrial center and a rail junction. Originally a Roman settlement called Lentia, Linz was made a provincial capital of the Holy Roman Empire in the late 15th cent.
*The city has numerous historic structures, including the Romanesque Church of St. Martin (8th cent.); the baroque old cathedral (17th cent.); the city hall (17th cent.); the baroque bishop's palace (1721-26); and the new neo-Gothic cathedral (19th-20th cent.).
*The Provincial Museum in Linz contains paintings, folk art, and Roman artifacts.
* Jewish moneylenders are recorded in Linz in 1304; a Jewish settlement in the growing market town is probably a century older. In 1335 a synagogue is mentioned; two Jews were baptized a year earlier. Jews were accused of desecrating the Host in 1338. Although the community was not harmed during the Black Death persecutions of 1348, a local persecution occurred in 1371. In 1396 Duke Albert IV permitted Jews to conduct only fiscal transactions with the burghers; the decree was renewed in 1412. The Jews were expelled from Linz in 1421, and in 1426 the synagogue was turned into a church. Jews were permitted to attend the biannual markets in the town in 1494, and Jewish horse dealers and feather and wool merchants, mainly from Moravia, continued to trade at the fairs until their entry was forbidden at the end of the 17th century. Only in 1783 were the markets officially declared open and in 1824 the Jews opened their own prayer room. A cemetery was consecrated in 1863, when the modern community was established. A new synagogue was opened in 1877.On Nov. 10, 1938, the synagogue was burned down by the S.S.; the remaining Jews were arrested and ordered to leave within three days for Vienna. The Nazis claimed that the Jews must leave the town because it was the capital of the province of Hitler's birth. Jewish shops were not looted because they had already been "Aryanized." Shortly after the end of the war, 2,400 Jewish refugees were housed in the nearby Bindermichen camp. A new community was reorganized, which numbered 238 in 1949 and 145 in 1961. In October 1957, an anti-Semitic demonstration was sparked off by a performance of "The Diary of Anne Frank." Protests against a ban on shehitah were lodged in 1958. A new synagogue was consecrated in 1968.
Steyr 1m57s 10:43:14.7 *Upper Austria prov., central Austria, on the Enns and Steyr rivers. It has been an ironworking center since the Middle Ages.
*Among Steyr's numerous well-preserved historic buildings are Lamberg castle (10th cent.; rebuilt in the 18th cent.) and a Gothic parish church of the 15th-16th cent.
Knittelfeld 1m16s 10:44:22.4
Leoben 2m07s 10:44:46.2 On the Mur River. An industrial center in a coal-mining region. An armistice between France and Austria, preliminary to the Treaty of Campo Formio, was signed (1797) at Leoben to conclude Napoleon I's victorious Italian campaign.
Bruck ander Mur 2m15s 10:45:02.8 *At the confluence of the Mur and the M?rz rivers. Manufactures include metal products and paper; Bruck is an important rail junction in the region. It was founded in 1263 by King Ottocar II of Bohemia.
*There is a 15th-century Gothic church in the city.
Kapfenberg 2m16s 10:45:05.8
Graz 1m12s 10:45:33.1 *Capital of Styria prov., on the Mur River. The second largest city in Austria. Probably founded in the 12th cent.
*Graz is built around the Schlossberg, a mountain peak, on which are the ruins of a 15th-century fortress and the famous Uhrturm [clock tower]. The city has a 15th-century Gothic cathedral; several medieval churches (13th-15th cent.); and a twin-naved Gothic parish church that contains Tintoretto's Assumption of the Virgin.
*The Landhaus [provincial parliament] dates from the 16th cent.
*The Johanneum museum (founded 1811) is one of the finest provincial museums in Austria. The new university (built 1890-95) is noted for medical studies. Emperor Ferdinand II is buried in Graz.
*Considered one of the oldest Jewish settlements in Austria. Though expelled in 1439, the Jews returned by 1447. After the expulsion of the Jews from Styria in 1496, together with the rest of Austrian Jewry, almost four centuries passed before there was again a formal settlement of Jews in the town. Only in 1783 were they permitted to attend the yearly trade fairs then held in Graz. Individual families with special permits were allowed to settle in Graz after 1848. By 1863 a community had come into being and in 1868 the demand for special permits was rescinded; in 1895 an impressive synagogue was dedicated. The anti-Zionism of Graz's communal leaders was pronounced, but a large influx of refugees from Eastern Europe in the wake of World War I strengthened the Zionist movement considerably, and in 1919, the Zionists gained a majority in the community. The Jews in Graz were socially segregated, and in the later 1930s Graz was a center of Austrian National Socialism (known as the "capital of the insurrection" after 1938). Immediately after the Anschluss (March 12, 1938), the Jewish cemetery was desecrated. The members of the community board were arrested and released only after prolonged negotiation. Local functionaries were anxious to make Graz the first town to be Judenrein. On the initiative of the head of the Jewish community, Elijah Gruenschlag, Adolf Eichmann agreed to the transfer of 5,000,000 marks to facilitate the emigration of 600 Jews to Palestine, but the events of Nov. 10, 1938, put an end to the project. On the night of Nov. 9-10 (Kristallnacht), the synagogue was dynamited and burned to the ground. More than 300 Jews were taken to Dachau concentration camp, to be released three weeks later. All Jewish residents were driven from their homes, and some 80% of them found temporary asylum. Their subsequent fate is unknown, though most perished in the Holocaust. After World War II, 110 Jews settled in Graz. There were 420 in 1949 and 286 in 1950. A small synagogue in a communal center built on the site of the synagogue ruins was consecrated in 1968.
Murzzuschlag 2m17s 10:45:41.0
Neunkirchen 1m50s 10:46:19.1
Wiener Neustadt 1m06s 10:46:33.2 *It is an industrial and rail center. Founded in 1192, Wiener Neustadt was the birthplace of Emperor Maximilian I (1459-1519). The city was severely damaged in World War II; it has since been extensively reconstructed.
*The 12th-century castle of the Babenbergs, dukes of Austria, became a military academy in 1752.
*Jews were living there soon after the city's foundation in 1192. There was an important yeshivah there during the 15th century. After several anti-Jewish decrees, the Jews were expelled from the city in 1496. The synagogue was converted into a church. Refugees from Oedenburg (Sopron), Hungary, settled in the city in the early 18th century, totaling 535 persons in 1708. However, clerical agitation and popular pressure forced them to leave soon afterward. Jewish peddlers and merchants, mainly from nearby Burgenland, continued to visit the city, but they were not allowed to stay overnight. Permission to open a cemetery was not granted until 1889. A Moorish-style synagogue was built in 1902. During Kristallnacht (Nov. 9-10, 1938) homes, furniture, and bank accounts of Jews were confiscated by the S.A.; the Jews there who did not emigrate were expelled or transported to Vienna.

 

Hungary
Sopron 1m27s 10:47:14.5 *It is a tourism and commercial center. Originally a Celtic settlement called Scarabantia, it became a military outpost under the Romans. Hungarians settling the area in the 10th and 11th cent. made the city an important fortress. Sopron was the site of the coronation of King (later emperor) Ferdinand III of Hungary and Bohemia in 1625 and a meeting place of the Hungarian Parliament in 1681. Part of the Burgenland, it was transferred to Austria after World War I but was returned to Hungary after a plebiscite (1921).
*Sopron is one of the oldest cultural centers in Hungary; it has a university, three 13th-century churches, and a 15th-century palace.
*Jews were living there during the 14th century, according to the prevailing custom in a "Jewish street." After King Louis the Great expelled the Jews in 1360, those who lived in the town left for nearby Wiener Neustadt in Austria. When Louis authorized their return in 1365, their houses were transferred to Christian ownership. During their absence the debts owed to them were canceled by Rudolf, prince of Austria, upon the request of the citizens of Sopron. Upon their return the Jews demanded that the validity of their promissory notes be recognized, but the townsmen succeeded in revoking them. From 1495 a special tax was imposed on the Jews by the governor of the town until in 1523 the king took them under his protection. When the whole of Hungary was conquered by the Turks in 1526, the Jews were expelled from the town "forever." They infiltrated back into Sopron in the 18th century but its gates remained closed to them until freedom of residence was authorized by law in 1840. In 1858 anti-Jewish riots broke out. In 1857 the Jews were authorized to organize themselves as a community but they did not possess a cemetery or synagogue. In 1862 the municipal council prevented the community from purchasing land for a cemetery and the Jews were compelled to acquire an estate for this purpose (1869). A synagogue was erected in 1876, and in 1884 a school was built. During World War II, after the German occupation (March 19, 1944), the Jews, numbering 1,861 in 1941, were deported to the death camp at Auschwitz. Only a few returned. Even after the deportation, the inhabitants of Sopron did not help to alleviate the suffering of the thousands of Jews from the forced labor camps who passed through the town on their last halt before being sent to the death camps in Germany.
Koszeg 2m19s 10:47:19.9 *In 1395 King Sigismund authorized the owner of the castle in Koszeg to admit Jews to the town. During the battle against the Turks in 1532, the Jews were apparently compelled to flee. At the time of a revolt in the 17th century, the whole town was destroyed by fire and Jews did not return to the rebuilt town until early in the 18th century. From 1940 the Jewish men were conscripted into forced labor groups. After the German occupation (March 19, 1944), the Jews were first confined in a narrow ghetto (May 14, 1944), and later were forced to lodge in an open barn. On June 18 all were transported to the central ghetto of the region, in the town of Szombathely. There they were tortured to induce them to hand over their property. The 117 Jews from Koszeg were deported to Auschwitz on July 4, 1944; only 15 returned. Under the regime of the Fascist Arrow Cross Party, a labor camp was set up ouside the town in which 5,000 Jews, including women who had been brought there on a death march, were imprisoned. By March 1945 some 3,000 Jews had died of hunger, disease, or torture, or had been executed. The survivors were then marched to Mauthausen and Wells; those who were unable to walk were either gassed or shot.
Szombathely 2m22s 10:47:34.2 *An important railway junction. Has been an episcopal see since the 17th cent. and has a women's college. The city was founded in 48 A.D. by the Roman emperor Claudius and called Sabaria. Septimius Severus was proclaimed (193) emperor there, and St. Martin of Tours was born (c.316) in the city. Was destroyed (5th cent.) by the Huns but was rebuilt.
*The city has an 18th-century cathedral, a 17th-century Dominican church, and an episcopal palace with a museum of antiquities.
*Ruins of a triumphal arch, an amphitheater, and an aqueduct have been excavated nearby.
*Jews lived there as merchants from 1687, but only in 1840 were they permitted to settle permanently. The older synagogue was used by the Orthodox congregation. A new synagogue was built in 1880. During World War II, after the entry of the Germans on March 19, 1944, about 4,220 Jews were deported to the death camp at Auschwitz, of whom some 250 returned. The synagogue of the community was converted into a concert-hall.
Kormend 2m06s 10:47:40.3
Sarvar 2m20s 10:48:07.2
Zalaegerszeg 1m46s 10:48:11.5
Keszthely 1m49s 10:48:57.7
Papa 2m03s 10:48:59.4 *By 1714 the first synagogue was built. At that time the tax collector of the city was a Jew. A new synagogue was built in 1743. During the Tiszaeszlar blood libel case (1882) anti-Jewish riots broke out in Papa but they were suppressed by the authorities.The last rabbi was J. Haberfeld, who perished with his congregation in the Holocaust. The anti-Jewish laws of 1938-39 caused great hardship in the community, and from 1940 the young Jewish men were sent to forced-labor battalions, at first within Hungary, but later to the Russian front (1942). After the German occupation on March 19, 1944, the Jews were confined in a ghetto on May 24 and from there moved to a concentration camp which was set up in a factory in the town. On July 4 and 5 2,565 Jews of the city plus 300 from the vicinity were deported to Auschwitz, from which less than 10% returned.
Ajka 2m20s 10:49:17.8
Veszprem 2m15s 10:49:55.6 *It is a commercial center. Made a bishopric by St. Stephen in 1001,
*Has an 18th-century episcopal palace, a cathedral (rebuilt many times), a former citadel, and a museum containing Roman remains. The tall Turkish minaret is now a fire tower.
*Between 1723 and 1725 three Jewish families settled in the city, and in 1736 there were 16 Jews there. Although Veszprem Jews leased land for a synagogue in 1799, it was not built until 1865. A school was founded in 1805 and existed until the Holocaust. After the German conquest (March 19, 1944) about 880 Jews were deported to Auschwitz and only a few of them returned.
Varpalota 1m54s 10:50:16.3
Siofok 2m22s 10:50:19.8
Szekesfehervar 1m37s 10:50:44.5 *It is a county administrative center, a road and rail junction, and an industrial center. It is also a market center for horses, wines, and farm produce. Dating from Roman times and known until the middle 16th cent. as Alba Regia, it was (1027-1527) the coronation and burial place of Hungary's kings. An important fortress town, it was destroyed during the Turkish occupation of Hungary (1543-1688) and rebuilt in the 18th cent.
*It is the seat of a Roman Catholic bishopric and has two palaces, several churches, and a museum containing Roman antiquities. The city was heavily damaged during World War II.
*During the early Middle Ages the capital of Hungary. Jews were living there in the 13th century, and the community, an important one during the 14th, played a role in Jewish affairs in the country as a whole. In interceded with the queen on behalf of the Jews of Pressburg (Bratislava) in 1503. The first synagogue was erected in 1867. From 1938 the community was affected by the restrictions and disabilities imposed on the Jews in Hungary. After the German occupation (March 19, 1944) about 5,000 Jews were concentrated in Szekesfehervar and with the 2,075 Jews in the town were deported to the death camp at Auschwitz. Only 250 returned.
Dombovcros 0m50s 10:50:48.8
Dunaujvcros 1m58s 10:51:51.0
Szekszard 1m39s 10:51:51.6 Jewish ghetto.
Paks 2m22s 10:51:57.9 *Jews first settled there in 1720. In 1788, on instructions from Emperor Joseph II, a Jewish school with German as the language of instruction was founded, changed to Hungarian by the community in 1870. The school was closed down in 1919. After the German occupation (March 19, 1944), about 730 members of the community were deported to Auschwitz.
Baja 1m01s 10:52:26.2 *Jews settled there about 1725. The community numbered 16 families in 1773 when it received permission to build a synagogue and appoint a rabbi. In March 1840 the communal buildings were devastated and the community nearly ruined in a general conflagration. A new synagogue was dedicated in 1845, a secondary school was opened in 1878, and the hospital was rebuilt in 1882. On April 14, 1944, German military detachments deported 150 men from the Jewish community. Those who did not perish in Auschwitz were later taken to Bergen-Belsen and Stettin (now Szczecin) where the rabbi of Baja, Joseph Klein, was beaten to death by German guards. The first hostages were followed two months later by the mass deportation of almost the entire Jewish community of Baja to Auschwitz. Fifteen to 20 families lived to see the liberation of their city.
Kalocsa 2m19s 10:52:13.9 *It is an agricultural center and is famed for its embroidery and paprika. Created a bishopric by St. Stephen, it became the seat of an archbishop in 1260.
*The town has a Roman Catholic academy, a cathedral, and an archiepiscopal palace (built in 1786).
Kecskemet 1m25s 10:53:13.5 *It is a county administrative center, a road and rail hub, and a manufacturing city Known since the 4th cent.
*The city has several churches, a museum, and a law school with a large library.
*The first Jews arrived there when the area was under Turkish domination in the 16th to 17th centuries. Subsequently the city came under Austrian rule. In 1715 the municipal council was requested to order the Jews attending the fairs there to do their business separately from the other merchants. A community was established in 1801, and in 1814 the Jews were authorized to use a house which they had purchased as a synagogue. The Jews in Kecskemet were attacked during the revolution of 1848 and their shops were looted. A magnificent synagogue was erected in 1871; it was destroyed by an earthquake in 1911 but was rebuilt in 1913. A separate Orthodox community was founded in 1917. After the end of World War I, following the collapse of the brief Communist regime, the "White Terror" fomented pogroms in the town and eight Jewish victims lost their lives.There was a Jewish school in the city from 1844 to 1870. In the wake of the growing anti-Semitism after 1930 there was an increase of Zionist activities, particularly after 1939. In May 1944, after the German invasion of Hungary (March 19, 1944), the Jews in Kecskemet were rounded up and treated with exceptional brutality by members of the S.S. from among the Hungarian Volksdeutsche. Their suffering was so great that 70 of them committed suicide by taking poison; 13 people were smuggled out at the last minute with the aid of forged documents. At the end of June, the 1,400 Jews in the ghetto were sent from the brickyard of Kecskemet to Auschwitz, from which only 150 returned.
Kiskunhalas 2m21s 10:53:14.0
Kiskunfelegyhaza 1m59s 10:53:39.8 It is a road and rail junction.
Szentes 1m50s 10:54:25.5
Szeged 2m21s 10:54:32.6 *At the confluence of the Tisza and Maros rivers. It is a river port, a railroad hub, and an agricultural center. Famous for its paprika and salami. Is the seat of a Roman Catholic bishopric.
*It has a university (founded 1921), a medical school, and a large library.
*The first national assembly of the Magyar tribes under their chief, Arpad, met (9th or 10th cent.) in the city, which became a military stronghold and trade center of the Arpad kings.
*Was sacked by the Tatars and the Turks and was ruled by the latter from 1542 to 1686. The city was partly destroyed by a flood in 1879 and was rebuilt in modern style.
*Among its landmarks are a 13th-century Romanesque tower and the 16th-century Mathias church.
*Jews settled there at a relatively late date, at the close of the 18th century. Previously, the Austrian emperor and Hungarian king Charles III had left the choice "whether or not to accept Jews and gypsies" in the hands of the "free royal cities," and these cities, including Szeged, took advantage of this right to exclude them. The erection of the first synagogue was planned for 1789, but because of opposition from the authorities was not built until 1803. It was replaced by another (the "Old Synagogue") in 1839, which stood until 1905, when the Great Synagogue was erected. Noted for its magnificence (it has been declared an architectural monument). There were 4,161 Jews living in Szeged in 1941. After the German occupation (March 19, 1944), the Jews were confined to a ghetto, where the Jews of the immediate vicinity were also concentrated. From there some were deported to Auschwitz, and others to Austria. About half returned from deportation, numbering 2,124 in 1946.
Hodmezovcrhely 2m19s 10:54:44.0 * Jews first settled in the city in 1748 but were expelled in 1770 because of the objections raised by the Greek Orthodox Church. In 1810 they began to organize themselves as a religious group but a regular community was not established until 1829. A synagogue was built in 1857, a school having already been opened in 1845. Their economy was ruined in 1938 as a result of the first anti-Jewish restrictions. From 1940 the men were conscripted for labor battalions, and after the German occupation, on June 16, 1944, they were transferred to the ghetto in Szeged. From there, 378 of them were deported to Auschwitz and 500 to Wiener-Neustadt, and other places in Austria, where members of the same family were not separated.
Mako 2m23s 10:55:10.1 *On the Muresul River near the Romanian border. It is an administrative and trade center and a road hub in a fertile agricultural region. The center of the Hungarian onion industry, Makoalso has textile mills.
*Jews were first authorized to settle in Mako in 1740. The first synagogue was erected in 1814, and the magnificent great synagogue was built in 1914. After the German invasion (March 19, 1944) the local Jews were deported to Auschwitz and some to Austria; only 324 of 946 survived. The synagogue was demolished in the late 1960s.

 


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