August 11, 1999 Eclipse Path
1. Naval base and seaport. Known for its DDay beaches
2. 15th century Trinity church Museums including Thomas-Henry museum.
1. Second largest seaport of France located on the English Channel. France's principal Atlantic port. Was an important military base during both world wars--badly damaged during the war
2. Two 16th and 17th century churches. Museums including medieval Art and Archeology, Fine Arts and Natural History.
3. Many times expelled/refused Jews from living there. Organized community founded in mid-19th century. New community, reconstituted after World War II. Possessed a synagogue and community center.
1. Abbey church of the Trinity (12-13th century). The history of the famous Benedictine liqueur is on display in the museum. Museum of the Terres Neuvas. Celebration of the Feast of the Trinity, pilgrimage of the Holy Blood.
1. Major port for Paris located on Seine River.
2. Known as the Museum City. Historical and architectural treasures make it a tourist center. The restored 13th-century Cathedral of Notre Dame is but one of several important churches. University established in 1966. Trial and execution of Joan of Arc occurred there in 1431.
3. Presence of Jews back to at least early 11th century. Jewry suffered from persecutions which affected Jews of France in general. A Jew of the town interceded with Pope John XVIII, who called for a cessation of persecutions throughout France. With exception of Metz, Rouen was only locality in what is now France where several Jews put to death and others forced to accept baptism at time of First Crusade. Synagogue, destroyed during bombardment in 1940, rebuilt in 1950. Numerous passages in Latin and Old French chronicles attest to historical importance and to commercial viability of Jewish community of medieval Rouen. Restrictions upon economic freedom occured only with return of French rule in the 13th century.
1. Guns are a specialty of the metal workers since the 16th century.
1. Major fishing and commercial port on English Channel. Has been known since medieval times for its fine ivory work. Recognized as important because of its strategic location on the channel. Was a key French naval base in 17th century. Was devastated by plague (1668, 1670), 17th-century religious persecution (was a Huguenot center), and wars. Suffered almost total destruction by Dutch and English forces in 1694 and by German occupation during the Franco-Prussian War (1870-71) and WW II (1940-44). This harbour town has direct ferry links to southern England. The "Dieppois" are proud of their beaches and their casino.
2. They also like to show visitors their 15th-17th century Château museum, which features a collection of antiques from the world of sailing. The Eglise Saint Jacques is a magnificent example of XIIIth gothic style and the Eglise Saint Rémy will delight fans of Renaissance and Classical art.
|Forges les Eaux||2m07s||10:21:46.6|
1. Lively spa town in the heart of the Pays de Bray countryside, surrounded by woods and parkland. Casino. Pottery museum.
1. Abbevillian, in the archaeology of the Paleolithic Period, is a term once used for the earliest stage of the Acheulean tool industry in western Europe. Named for a site on the Somme River near Abbeville, France, the 500,000-year-old industry is characterized by few flake tools and by thick, ragged-edged hand-axes frequently with unfinished butt ends. Finds at the Abbeville site, uncovered form 1836 on, were among the first evidence of the great antiquity of the human species.
1. The Cathédrale St. Pierre is about the only thing in Beauvais that survived the bombings of 1940. Rising grandly over broad, flat agricultural plains, it is one of the most ambitious Gothic cathedrals in France and evokes, perhaps more than any other monument in northern France, the religious materialism of the Middle Ages. The bishops who oversaw the construction of the cathedral in 1238, had just one thing in mind - that it be taller and larger than any of its rivals. The desperate search for the necessary funds, which were largely obtained by the sale of indulgences, was prolonged over four hundred years and finally abandoned in the 17th century, leaving the work unfinished. With its dizzying 480m vaults, its choir, considered today the paragon of Gothic choirs, and its stained glass windows rising 18 meters high, the Cathédrale St. Pierre remains one of the prime examples of the possibilities to which Gothic art aspired. The cathedral also houses a monumental astronomical clock made up of 90,000 parts that has just been restored. (http://www.worldmedia.fr/tourism/Page/T03004.html#refchapo)
1. Was originally the capital of the Ambiani tribe and was under Roman rule when Christianity was introduced in the 4th century. Was the site of the Peace of Amiens (1802) during the Napoleonic Wars. Occupied by Germans in both world wars. Treaty of Amiens, signed by Britain and by France, Spain, and the Batavian Republic (Holland) in March 1802, marked the end of the French Revolutionary Wars.
2. Amiens Cathedral among most famous High Gothic cathedrals. University of Picardy and Picardy Museum.
1. On the Nonette River. Has some of the best preserved monuments in France, including walls and towers from Gallo-Roman times and medieval ramparts and bastions.
2. The Church of Notre Dame (12th–13th cent.) is one of the early masterpieces of Gothic architecture. Senlis also has a 15th-century town hall and the ruins of a château once inhabited by the first kings of France.
3. The presence of Jews in Senlis is confirmed from at least 1106. There is no evidence that the Jews returned to Senlis after the expulsion in 1306.
|Crepy en Valois||1m31s||10:23:47.7|
1. In 768 at Noyon, Charlemagne was crowned king of the Franks. France and Spain signed a treaty there in 1516.
2. The town was devastated in both World Wars, but the Cathedral of Notre Dame (12th–13th cent.) has survived. The house where John Calvin was born is now a museum
1. On the Aisne River. Was an old Roman town and early episcopal see. Its strategic location has made it the scene of many battles throughout history. Clovis I defeated the Roman legions at Soissons in 486, and the city was the capital of several Merovingian kings (5th–7th cent.). Pepin the Short dethroned Childeric III there in 751; and Robert I, grandfather of Hugh Capet, was killed in battle at Soissons in 923. Throughout the 19th and 20th cent. the city was the scene of warfare, culminating in the German invasion of 1940.
2. Part of the Abbey of Saint-Jean-des-Vignes survives, as does the nearby Abbey of St. Médard, a burial place of Merovingian kings. The Gothic Cathedral of Saint-Gervais and Saint-Protais (12th–13th cent.) has stained-glass windows by Rubens.
3. Large Jewish community by beginning 12th century at the latest. At later date Count Raoul granted convent of Notre Dame annual income of six gold bezants for as long as Jews remained in the town; they were thus untouched by the expulsion of 1182. Possessed a synagogue which was situated under the castle walls, a first cemetery close to the early enclosure of the town, and a second cemetery near St. Christopher's Gate. Medieval community came to an end with expulsion in 1306. At beginning of World War II about 80 Jews lived in Soissons but no community was reestablished after the war.
1. On the Somme River. Was famous for its cloth during the Middle Ages. Of Roman origin, the city was chartered in 1080 and was the capital of the medieval county of Vermandois. It became part of the royal domain in 1191 and was ceded briefly to Burgundy (1435–77). The city has a long history of sieges and captures, most notably by the Spanish (1557) during the Wars of Religion.
2. The Musée Lécuyer. In the city is the Collégiale Saint-Quentin (dating from the 13th to the 15th cent.), a large Gothic church.
1. Center of a major wine-growing region, specializing in champagne production. The city has been known for its textiles since the Middle Ages. University of Reims established in 1547. Named for the Remi, a Gallic tribe, was one of the principal urban centers of Gaul during Roman times. Later it was the coronation place of most of the French kings.
2. City suffered severe destruction during WWI when German forces captured and pillaged it for 10 days. The German army then occupied the heights overlooking the city for 4 years, and periodic bombing damaged or destroyed many buildings, including Gothic Cathedral of Notre Dame. Destruction also took place during WWII. The Germans surrendered unconditionally to the Allies on May 7, 1945, in a hall of the College Moderne in Reims, which had served as headquarters of the Allied Commmand. In 1568 a Roman Catholic college for English priests was established in Douai and they produced the Douay-Reims Bible (1582, 1609), one of the most important early English translations of the Bible.
|Chalons sur Mar||0m33s||10:26:06.9|
1. Capital of Marne dept., on the Marne River. It is a commercial and industrial center. There, in 451, the Huns under Attila were defeated by Actius.
2. Although badly damaged in both World Wars, it still retains its cathedral (13th–17th cent.) and many remarkable Gothic churches.
3. The Rue de la Petite Juiverie and the Rue des Juifs [streets of the Jews] still exist in the town. Jewish cemetery disposed of after they were expelled in 1306. Jews unable to sell some articles without special permission. A stained glass window in one of the cathedrals depicts one of the oldest and most hostile representations of Judaism. In World War II, the prison there served as an assembly station for deportations carried out by the Germans.
1. On the Aisne River. It is a farm trade center. It was (13th cent.) the seat of a county held by the courts of Champagne, and passed (1384) to the house of Burgundy. It was raised to a duchy (1581) and acquired by the house of Gonzaga. The title was sold (1663) to the Mazarin family. Strategically located, Rethel has been the scene of much fighting throughout history. It suffered extensive damage in both World Wars.
1. On the Meuse River, in Champagne. It was formed in 1966 when the twin cities of Charleville and Mézières were merged, along with three small communities. It is a commercial center and railway hub with a variety of heavy and light manufactures. Mézières was an old fortified town, founded in the 9th cent.; Charleville was founded (1606) by, and named for, Charles de Gonzague, duke of Rethel. The area has often been captured by the Germans (1815, 1870, 1914, 1940), and Mézières in particular suffered heavy damage in both World Wars. Its recovery (1918) by the Allies marked the last major battle of World War I.
2. Jews received permission to settle in Charleville on May 25, 1609, shortly after foundation of the city. In 1630, granted plot of land for a synagogue, and another as a cemetery. Most expelled in 1633 but new community formed there in 1651. The former Rue des Juifs is the present-day Rue Taine.
1. On the Meuse River. A noted textile center since the 16th cent. The town became part of French crown lands in 1642. It was a Protestant stronghold in the 16th and 17th cent., and a noted Calvinist academy was located there. Sedan was the site of the decisive French defeat (1870) in the Franco-Prussian War and the surrender of Napoleon III. The town saw heavy fighting in World War I and was the point of the first German breakthrough (1940) in the invasion of France in World War II.
1. Site of one of the longest battles of WWI. The Treaty of Verdun (Aug 10, 843) divided Charlemagne's Frankish Empire among the three sons of Louis I (Louis the Pious). The divisions coincided roughly with later national boundaries in Europe: Charles II (Charles the Bald) received lands corresponding to most of modern France; Louis the German gained the lands east of the Rhine River (Germany); and Lothair I, the eldest, took the imperial title and the Lombard kingdom (Italy) as well as heterogeneous territories to the north.
2. Has an 11th century cathedral and a 17th century town hall now housing a war museum. Importance as commercial center and military stronghold predated the Roman Empire. Notre Dame Cathedral.
3. Jews no longer authorized to live in Verdun and in the bishopric, and in vain the town appealed to Council of Basle, in 1434, for the right to admit them temporarily. Desecrated by the Nazis, it was restored in 1959.
1. The center of the Lorraine iron and steel industry, Longwy is also trying to diversify its economic base. Longwy-Haut, c.500 ft (150 m) higher, has kept the fortifications built (17th cent.) by Vauban.
1. Capital of the Moselle department in the Lorraine region of northeastern France, is situated at the confluence of the Moselle and the Seille rivers about 40 km (25 mi) west of the German border. Strategic communications and transportation center. Major city in important Lorraine iron-mining and industrial region. Was the capital of the Mediomatrici, a Gallic tribe, and then a Roman military post until the 5th century.
2. Among many old churches, monuments, and public buildings are the Gothic Cathedral of Saint Etienne (13th-16th centuries), the Palais de Justice begun in the 18th century, the 4th-century Church of Saint Peter, and the Porte des Allemands (13th-15th centuries). There are also several museums exhibiting Roman artifacts. The seat of a powerful bishop in the 12th century.
3. Jewish presence from 888 at the latest; a Church council held in Metz at that date forbade Christians to take meals in the company of Jews. In Metz series of anti-Jewish persecutions accompanying First Crusade began, claiming 22 victims in the town in 1096. Medieval community occupied a whole quarter. In 1237 every Jew passing through Metz compelled to pay 30 deniers to the town, but not permitted to live there. In 15th century successive bishops tolerated the Jews under their jurisdiction and granted them privileges (1442). In Metz itself, however, Jews permitted to stay only three days. Jews were hampered in their economic activities by legal disabilities. In 1792 Lafayette, commanding the army at Metz, assured religious freedom of Jews, which was later suspended during the Reign of Terror (1794). Synagogue was rebuilt in 1850.
1. German Diedenhofen. It is a center for metallurgical and chemical industries. The town was a favorite of Charlemagne. In the testament of Thionville (806) Charlemagne divided his kingdom among his sons. After being captured by the Prussians in 1870, the town remained German until 1919.
2. Jews in Thionville from the 15th century. Was the seat of a rabbinate. During Nazi occupation five Jews were shot and about 30 families deported. Synagogue, established in 1805, rebuilt on several occasions, most recently in 1957, after it had been burned down by Nazis during World War II.
1. Jews were present around 1321.
1. The presence of Jews confirmed from at least 1334. Community suffered during Armleder persecutions in 1338. At time of Black Death in 1349 only one Jewish family in Saverne, which was compelled to leave town. Community numbered over 300 persons at close of 19th century. New synagogue opened in 1898. During World War II, 30 Jews of Saverne died during deportation.
1. Strategic river port. Traditional capital of the province of Alsace. Famous for pate de foie gras. Was renowned in mid-18th century for its fine porcelain and earthenware, and during French Revolution the French national anthem, "La Marseillaise," was composed there. Is the seat of the Council of Europe.
2. Many notable buildings include the famous Gothic Cathedral of Notre Dame, begun in the 12th century, and the Chateau des Rohans (18th century), a former palace. University of Strasbourg founded in 1538.
3. Earliest evidence on presence of Jews in 1188. Anti-Jewish persecutions connected with Third Crusade. Paid highest tax of all Jewish communities of the empire. Until about 1260, Jews subjected to authority of the bishop. Massacre after being accused of propagating Black Death. Feb 14, 1349 2,000 Jews burned; others escaped by accepting baptism. Sept 12, 1349 town pardoned for massacre and plundering of possessions. Until French Revolution, two calls upon a horn, played nightly, perpetuated memory of supposed treason of Jews. Town decides to prohibit Jews from settling there for 100 years, although some manage to get permission but were levied heavy fees. Another expulsion in 1388 "forever." Again, they manage to come back but have to pay expensive tolls and after a while each Jew dogged by a municipal servant to see everything they did. If Jew wanted to stay the night, had to pay double tax. Jews stopped at gates of town and interrogated and searched. Sometimes in its history the city helped Jews but it always turned back to excluding them. Entire population evacuated to southwest France when World War II broke out (September 1939). In Strasbourg proper, Nazis set fire to the synagogue erected in 1898 and systematically destroyed and scattered all traces of the structure. Strasbourg Jews played major role in educational work, welfare, sanitation, and every type of resistance. About 10,000 Jews lived in Strasbourg on eve of World War II. Eight thousand came back after liberation, 1,000 died in concentration camps, and another 1,000 decided to settle elsewhere. Strasbourg Jewry was one of most active communities on continent of Europe after World War II. University of Strasbourg had a chair of Jewish studies. Synagogue of Peace inaugurated in 1958. Includes large community center, which has often been site of national and international Jewish congresses. Anti-Semitism of population expressed by establishment of organizations to prevent return of Jewish property (confiscated in 1940) to the owners and later to prevent erection of a synagogue on city land.
1. First info on Jews in city is in 1235 with regards to a blood libel but they were protected by the emperor and escaped harm. The emperor protected them on numerous occasions. From 1660, there has been a rabbi in Haguenau. There were 600 Jews in the community on eve of World War II. Of these, 148 persons died in deportation or on battlefield. Present synagogue on Rue des Juifs (plundered by the Nazis and later renovated) erected in 1821. Cemetery is known to have existed from 16th century, but was probably established during Middle Ages. For a long time, it also served all the Jews of the region.
Normandy information mostly from: http://normandy-tourism.org/gb/town/town.html
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