by Cunningham Geikie, D.D.

Notes on Revelation Online Books

 

The Holy Land and the Bible
A Book of Scripture Illustrations gathered in Palestine

Cunningham Geikie, D.D.

With a Map of Palestine and Original Illustrations by H. A. Harper
Special Edition

(1887)

We would like to thank N. Ridley, Israel for sending us this book for inclusion on this website.

 

Contents

CHAPTER 1—JOPPA AND ITS NEIGHBOURHOOD
The First Sight of Joppa
Landing under DifficultiesThrough the StreetsOrange Groves and Orchards—Why Jaffa Oranges are not RoundWater and Water Wheels—IrrigationPrevalence of ArchesProwling DogsThe BazaarTattooingInside a CafeBurdens Heavy to be BorneTanningThe RoofsTraditional SitesJonah and the "Whale"Past and Present—A Massacre

CHAPTER 2—LYDDA—RAMLEH
The Finest Fountain in Palestine
The Water SupplyIbn Ibrak—Beit Dejan—Kefr AnaEl-Yehudiyeh—RantiehLyddaIts Associations with St. GeorgeThe Road to RamlehAncient Crusading ChurchThe White TowerWhy the Hebrews Failed to Keep the Lowlands

CHAPTER 3—THE PLAIN OF SHARON
The Rose of Sharon and the Lily of the Valley
Peasants PloughingBeit NebalaMidieh—The Home of the MaccabeesThe Turtle-DoveNature in the BibleTibnehA Remarkable Rock-Tomb—Is Joshua Buried Here?Trees in the Holy Land—"Yaar"Roman Road to AntipatrisEl-Yehudiyeh—What Houses are Built of in PalestineRainy RoofsAntipatris"Preparing the Way"Kefr Saba—GilgalZeita—The "Club-bearers"

CHAPTER 4—CÆSAREA —ATHLIT
Cæsarea and the Early Church
The Building of the CityIts RuinsThe Country to the NorthTimber in PalestineThe ZerkaCrocodiles—The Ma-Mas—A Suburb of CæsareaNorth to CarmelAthlit—Its Connections with the Templars—Dor, or TanturahLocal Feuds—A Nest of AssassinsMukhalid and its Melon CropsDry, yet Fertile—The ExplanationThe Dew of the Morning—The Pastures of SharonEl-FalikArsuf—The Carob, or Locust-TreeLocusts as FoodThe AujehSkin JarsA German Colony

CHAPTER 5—THE PHILISTINE PLAIN AND SAMSON'S COUNTRY
The "Turn-out"
Derivation of "Palestine"The Philistines—Their OriginTheir Relations with the Hebrews—Their CharacterHittites, Girgashi, Amorites, Canaanites, and JebusitesWomen as Carriers"Teben"Irruption of Sand—A Sign of CivilisationYabneh or JamniaThe Scene of Barcochba's InsurrectionEkron and the Ark"The Lord of Flies"—Troublesome InsectsTell JezerWady es Surar—Birthplace of SamsonTibnah or TimnathMarriage, Present and PastJackalsBethshemesh

CHAPTER 6—LOCALITIES FAMOUS IN DAVID'S LIFE
The Scene of David's Victory over Goliath
The Sling as a Shepherd's ImplementThe Ancient Socoh and Ephes-DamminThe Cave of Adullam—Houses not Made with HandsKeilah—The Valley of Elah—A Desperate RushTell ZakariyahThe Wady Akrabeh—Tell es Safieh—El SafiehEntertained by the Sheikh—One Dish to Four Eaters—Burning Thorns—Big FiresThe Lamp Goes Out: a Fatal OmenMorning—The Blanche Garde—A Magnificent View—A Cloud of DovesThe Probable Site of Gath—Philistine GiantsDavid's Stratagem—Lunatics as SaintsScarcity of Timber in Palestine—Manure as FuelTell et TurmusThe Road to Ashdod—Winter Floods"As Pants the Hart""Deep Calleth unto Deep": the Probable Meaning of the Phrase

CHAPTER 7—ASHDOD—MEJDEL
Ashdod—A Plague of Sand
Dagon and DerketoThe History of AshdodThe Capture of the ArkDagon's DefeatVotive Offerings—An Unwelcome OfferThe Sycamore: Its Fruit and its WoodWandering ArabsEl-MejdelThe Olive: Its AntiquityHow it is PropagatedThe Gathering of the BerriesDifferent Methods of Expressing the OilThe Country beyond Mejdel—A Generous Arab GirlThe Mole-Rat—Poverty of the Hebrew LanguageNalia and BurberahHarvest on the Plains and in the MountainsThe Threshing-FloorTreading out the Corn—A Wheeled Threshing-Sledge—Tearing Prisoners of War to PiecesWinnowingScriptural Images taken from the Threshing-FloorA Mistranslated PassageThe Oriental Mode of SwimmingSubterranean StorehousesDiminished Fertility

CHAPTER 8—GAZA
Carrying Children on the Shoulder—Boys and Girls
Deir SineidJob's Dung-hillCattle that know their way aboutBeit Hanun: A MisnomerGazaThe Filthiness of Eastern TownsA Prohibited CraftCocks and Hens: their RecordThe Mosque at Gaza—Heathen Gaza—The God Marnas—A DiscoveryTraditional Scene of Samson's last Feat—What the "House" of Dagon was likeA Turkish Court of JusticeBlood FeudsA Typical "Inn"The Industries of Gaza and of the HebrewsGrinding at the MillThe CemeteryHired WailersA Memorial Service—Funeral ProcessionsThe Fig-tree—Fruit Time"Abbas" and "Izars"Children with Shaved HeadsA Cosmopolitan StructureInfant Mortality in PalestinePolygamy—Facility of DivorceA Visit from the KadiEl-Munter and what it has seen

CHAPTER 9—ASCALON
A Trip to Ascalon—A Sand Ocean
The Prevalence of Potsherds—Ancient PotteryGeneral Gordon's Place of PrayerA Short and Easy Method of FiltrationThe Approach to Ascalon from the SeaShalots: Origin of the TermA Chat with ArabsRuins of the Ancient FortressReminiscencesNew Ascalon or El-Jurah—An Olive WoodA Definition of Turkish Rule—Bashi-Bazouks as Tax-CollectorsThe "Apple Tree" of the BibleA Wild AdventureThe Muezzin's Summons—Prayer in the EastThe Palm Tree

CHAPTER 10—ON THE WAY TO GERAR
A Picturesque Conductor
How They Dress in Southern PalestineMilk, Sour and SweetCheese and ButterWady GhuzzehA Bible WildernessShepherds, Good and BadRobbers and Wild BeastsWatching Flocks by Night"Putting Forth" Sheep in the Morning"Rod and Staff"Taking Care of the LambsGoats—The Bright and the Dark Side of a Shepherd's LifeHow Shepherds are PaidSheep with Huge TailsStatisticsSeething a Kid in his Mother's Milk—Basis of the Prohibition

CHAPTER 11—GERAR
Wells near Gerar
Are they the ones mentioned in Genesis?—The Wady GhuzzehBrittle PotteryAntiquity of GerarA Spirited GuideThe Serpents of PalestineThe Cockatrice and the BasiliskThe "Adder"Serpent-Charming—Inventive TheologiansThe Horned SnakeThe Viper"Fiery Serpents"—"Wise as Serpents"From Gerar to Beersheba—AnArab and his Spear—Excessive Courtesy

CHAPTER 12—BEERSHEBA
The Wells at Beersheba
Ruins of the Ancient TownPersonal Ornaments, Modern and Ancient—Trinkets as CharmsThe History of BeershebaBroom and its UsesThe Desert of El-TihAncient Native Houses—Cairns—"Grape-Mounds"—Ruins of Christian ChurchesSebaita and its RuinsThe Hebron ValleyCave Dwellings at DhahariyehTell Arad, Moladah, and Aroer

CHAPTER 13—FROM GAZA TO FALUJEH
The Start—The Composition of the Party
Prevalence of OphthalmiaBeit Hanun—An Abusive MoslemNejidSimsimThe Winter, the Early and the Latter RainBureir—Subterranean ReservoirsThe GazelleFalujeh—Poverty in Ancient Times and in TheseArab TentsA Girl instead of a Boy—A Lay CasuistA Seeing EyeArab HospitalitySkin Bottles"Good Measure"—How Arabs DressPaternal Authority

CHAPTER 14—FALUJEH TO BEIT JIBRIN AND HEBRON
Arak—A Ticklish Descent
Beit JibrinTaking Refuge in the Sheikh's House—How the Turks GovernRoughing itThe Site of GathArtificial Caverns—Cave-Dwellers of To-dayEvading ConscriptionA Relic of Byzantine Times—The Crescent Victorious over the CrossOriental SalutationsThrough the "Desert"Stone Walls

CHAPTER 15—HEBRON 
Vineyards in Palestine
Treading the Wine PressFamous Wine-growing DistrictsWhere was Eshcol?WallsThe Grape HarvestRed and Green GrapesGrape "Honey"An Injudicious Mixture; A Sober CountryThe Road from Adullam to HebronThe Russian Hospice at Hebron; "Abraham's Oak"Interviewing the Governor; Filthy StreetsConventional GreetingsThe "Scrip"Glass WorksHouses at Hebron"Othniel's Pool" and "Abraham's Pool"; Splendid CursersThe Cave of Machpelah and the Mosque of Abraham; Mock TombsCommercial Transactions in the East; The Consummation of a BargainHistorical Reminiscences

CHAPTER 16—THE COUNTRY SOUTH OF HEBRON 
The Juttah Plateau; The Traditional Birthplace of John the Baptist
Kurmul (Carmel); Nabal and DavidSemua (Eshtemoa); The Dimensions of PalestineIts Suitability to be the Scene of a Divine RevelationThe NegebThe MirageDavid's Wandering; ZiphHachilahDebir and its History; Achsah's DiplomacyThe "Book-Town"DhaheriyehEl DilbehVisit to a TanneryThe Contradictions of PalestineThe Threshing-Floors of HebronA Typical Dinner

CHAPTER 17—THE COUNTRY NORTH OF HEBRON 
The Jerusalem Road
The Ass and his Uses"The House of Abraham"; Jonah's Mosque; The GourdTarshish; A Hebrew ShipEl Dirweh and the MaccabeesBereikut; An Unpleasant DigressionRussian PilgrimsSolomon's Pools; The Wady Urtas and Solomon's Pleasure GardensAqueducts in PalestineAnts: The Natural History of the Bible

CHAPTER 18—URTAS 
The Frank Mountain and its Connection with Herod
View from the SummitDavid's WanderingsConcerning LocustsTheir Place in the Mosaic LawKhureitun and the Cave of AdullamSt. Chariton; Hermits and Monks in Ancient TimesThe Wady KhureitunThe Great CavernTekoaIts Associations with Amos and the MaccabeesThe Region Round About"The Swellings of Jordan"The Wady Urtas Again; Another View of the Great Pools

CHAPTER 19—BETHLEHEM 
From El-Burak to Bethlehem
Among Christians; The Tomb of RachelFemale DressGeneral Appearance of Bethlehem; Its IndustriesThe StreetsThe Church of the NativityThe Chapel of the NativityThe Probable Place of Christ's BirthSuperstition RampantThe Fields of Boaz; Harvesting and GleaningPractical Equality and Fraternity; The Joy of HarvestThe Duty of the Deceased Husband's BrotherAn Illustrious Stock"David's Well"Overlooking BethlehemThe Women of BethlehemHousetops and their Uses

CHAPTER 20—BETHLEHEM TO JERUSALEM 
The Littleness of Palestine
Rachel's GraveThe Patriarchs and Sun-worshipJacob and his First LoveThe Unchanging East; Marriage CustomsJacob and EsauAt the WellThe Mandrake and its Supposed PropertiesTeraphimHorses and Asses in Ancient TimesThe Starry HeavensThe Monastery of EliasA Glorious ViewThe Valley of Rephaim

CHAPTER 21—JERUSALEM
The Joppa Gate
Characteristic Street ScenesThe Size of JerusalemThe Tower of DavidGeneral View of the City; The Surrounding HillsThe "Upper Pool"David StreetChristian Street; The Church of the Holy Sepulchre; "Holy Fire"; "The Centre of the World"Chapel of St. Helena and of the Invention of the Cross"Golgotha"

CHAPTER 22—JERUSALEM (continued) 
Hospice of the Knights of St. John
Professional Letter-WritersWriting in Ancient TimesThe Seal and its ImportanceThe BazaarsHow the People DressThe Damascus Gate; A Characteristic Scene; The Via Dolorosa—Pilate's Judgment Hall; The Pool of BethesdaChurch of St. AnneMosque of Omar: the Top of Mount MoriahMosque El-AksaView from the Temple Area

CHAPTER 23—JERUSALEM (continued) 
Herod's Temple; Court of the Gentiles
Court of the Women; The Gate BeautifulThe EntranceRobinson's ArchThe Wailing PlaceThe Jews' Quarters; Observance of TraditionsA Second Bridge; The Tower of AntoniaTombs of the Hebrew Kings; Herod's PalaceThe Walls of the CityLepers and Leprosy; Tacitus on the Origin of the JewsEvangelical Effort at the Present DayUnscrupulous TradersBishop Gobat's SchoolhouseThe Population of the City; Its Religious Sub-divisions; Invasions by Pilgrims

CHAPTER 24—ROUND ABOUT JERUSALEM 
The Summit of Mount Zion
Professional MournersQuick Burial"Tomb of David" and "Room of the Last Supper"The Sultan's PoolThe Valley of Hinnom and its AssociationsThe Hill of Evil Counsel; AceldamaCheesemakers' ValleyPool of SiloamAn Ancient InscriptionThe Virgin's Well; A Curious PhenomenonThe Royal GardensEn Rogel; "God Save King Adonijah"Hill of OffenceValley of Jehoshaphat; The Village of Silwan (Siloam)

CHAPTER 25—GETHSEMANE AND CALVARY 
The Scene of the Last Judgment; Tombs of Zechariah and Absalom
Cursing upon SystemTomb of JehoshaphatThe Kedron ValleyGethsemaneChapel of the Tomb of the VirginThe Ascent of OlivetIts three SummitsThe Finest View around JerusalemThe "Cotton Grotto": where the Stone was Quarried and Squared for Solomon's Temple; Forced LabourThe Grotto of JeremiahThe Site of CalvaryJoseph of Arimathæa's Tomb

CHAPTER 26—JERUSALEM AND BETHANY 
The Damascus Gate
A Suburb for the RichA Good Road and How it came to be MadeThe Daily Life of Ancient JerusalemThe Water Supply; Almost ImpregnableTo BethanyRock TombsThe Village as it now is; The Redeemer's Last Ascent to Jerusalem

CHAPTER 27—STILL ROUND JERUSALEM 
The "Potters' Gate"
Pottery in the East; Scripture Allusions to itThe Wall of Jerusalem near St. Stephen's GateTombs of the KingsTombs of the JudgesDefilement from SepulchresThe Climate of Jerusalem; The Seasons in PalestineThe Desert Storm-Wind

CHAPTER 28—THE PLAIN OF JERICHO 
The Road to Jericho
A Khan where Jesus must have RestedThe Wady Kelt and the Monastery of St. John; The "Swelling" of JordanThe "Pool of Moses"The Spina ChristiA Land of ThornsThe Sultan's SpringSite of Jericho; History of the City; Its Modern SuccessorWhat Eastern Christians are thought ofMountain of the TemptationBeth-Hogla

CHAPTER 29—THE JORDAN
The "Glory" of the Jordan—Locale of the Baptist's Ministry—Mouth of the River
The Jerboa and the ConyAssociations of the JordanPilgrimages to the Supposed Scene of the BaptismGilgal of the Jordan Plain, and how it was discoveredThe other GilgalsThe Valley of the JordanIts SourcesIts Length—Historic Crossing PointsThe Hill of Surtabeh and its ancient usesFrom North to South—A Memorable Voyage

CHAPTER 30—THE DEAD SEA
The distant Past and the Present
The Jordan near its MouthThe Waters of the Dead SeaIts TributariesEvaporation Extraordinary—How the Sea was formedThe Original Dimensions of the SeaThe Winter StormsBaked RockThe View from the Mouth of the JordanThe Plain of EngediHenna and the Apple of SodomThe Fountain of EngediSituation of the Cities of the PlainThe probable Mode of their DestructionLot's Wife—The Abode of Silence and Death

CHAPTER 31—MAR SABA
Saint Sabas—A Scene of Stern Grandeur—Foundation of the Monastery
Gaining Admission—The Saint's GraveThe Church—How the Monks LiveTheir Gardens—Tameness of Wild CreaturesAn Evening at the MonasteryThe Baking of BreadThe Essenes"The Watch Tower"The ScapegoatGetting round the Mosaic LawCharacter of the Monks

CHAPTER 32—TO EMMAUS AND KIRJATH JEARIM
The Convent of the Holy Cross
Malhah—Sherafat—Ain HanniyehBittir (Bether)—The Final Downfall of the Jews"Hewers of Wood"How Orientals SingBethshemesh—Timnath—EbenezerProbable Sites of Emmaus and Kirjath JearimArtufAin Karim and its MonasteryKolonieh—Festival on the Day of AtonementLand Tenure in Palestine: Division by Lot and LineLandmarksSalting Infants

CHAPTER 33—NORTHWARDS
British Influence in Palestine
View from the Summit of Scopus—Its Associations"The Village of Jesus" and Shafat: NobBirthplace of Jeremiah—His Great PredecessorTwo Women Grinding at the MillTel el FulGibeah—A Great Crime and its PunishmentDavid and the Sons of RizpahNeby Samwil and its MemoriesEl Jib (Gibeon)Er Ram (Ramah)Geba (Gibeah)Mukhmas (Michmash)The Feat of Jonathan and his Armour-bearer

CHAPTER 34—BETHHORON, BETHEL, SHILOH
El Tell: the Site of Ai
The Pass of BethhoronThe Valley of AjalonThe Defeat and Pursuit of the AmoritesThe Bethel of To-day—Bethel and Shechem as Holy PlacesStriking TentThe Tent-Life of the HebrewsVillage Life now and in Christ's DayTravelling Expenses in PalestineAin HaramiyehTraces of the Crusaders—The ScarabæusSeilun (Shiloh)The National Sanctuary of Israel—A Parallel with Roman HistoryThe Prevalence of Ophthalmia

CHAPTER 35—TO GERIZIM
The Valley of Shiloh—Lubban (Lebonah)
SawiehKefr HarisThe "Green Trees" of ScriptureAwerta: The Tomb of PhinehasEl MukhnahThe Oak of ShechemThe Well of SamariaAskar (Sychar): View of Gerizim and EbalTraditional Tomb of JosephNablus (Shechem): its MosqueMarriage CustomsThe Summit of GerizimScene of the Cursings and BlessingsThe Views from Gerizim and EbalA Samaritan Community: Their Sacred Writings: The High Priest: The Protestant MissionThe Associations of ShechemSalem and Ainun (Enon)

CHAPTER 36—THE CITY OF SAMARIA
Leaving Shechem
At the City of Samaria—The Church of St. JohnThe Crusaders as Architects—Pagan and Christian: a ComparisonThe Site of Baal's Temple—Herod's TempleFrom the Days of Omri to the Fall of the CityThe Origin and Career of the Northern KingdomThe Southern Slope of the Hill—The Unspeakable Turk again

CHAPTER 37—DOTHAN, GILBOA, SHUNEM
Burka—Birds of Prey: How Eagles Learn to Fly—Sanur
Plain of Dothan—"Well of the Pit"JeninMountains of Gilboa—Plain of Esdraelon: Teaching the Bedouins a LessonScene of Saul's Defeat and DeathSite of JezreelSolam (Shunem)Endor—Roof Chambers in PalestineAssociations of Shunem

CHAPTER 38—BEISAN, JEZREEL, NAIN
Beisan (Bethshan): the Modern Village and the Ancient City
"Bethabara"Ain Harod: the "Spring of Trembling"Gideon's Great TriumphJezreel and JosiahMegiddo and ArmageddonBarak and Sisera—Joel's cruel TreacheryJezebel's Crime and its PunishmentNeby Duhy: the "Little Hermon"—Nain

CHAPTER 39—NAZARETH
The Scene of a Great Battle
The First View of NazarethWhat the Missionaries are DoingThe "Virgin's Fountain"—Christian and Mahommedan WomenThe ShopsThe "Evil Eye"

CHAPTER 40—TABOR, EL-MAHRAKAH, CARMEL
From Nazareth to Tabor
Summit of the Hill—Traces of the CrusadersA Franciscan Monastery—Odium TheologicumThe View from Tabor—Reminiscences—Tabor and the TransfigurationAt Nazareth againMarriage FestivitiesThe Position of Women in the EastThe Palm TreeScene of Elijah's Triumph over the Priests of BaalSheikh AbreikThe Pre-eminence of Carmel

CHAPTER 41—HAIFA AND ACRE
A Druse Village
A Carmelite MonasteryHaifaThe Road to AcreThe Kishon and the BelusAcre and its Fortifications—Its HistoryIts Trade—The CemeteryThe "Eye of a Needle"

CHAPTER 42—EL-BUTTAUF, CANA, THE MOUNT OF BEATITUDES
Roman Roads—Damun
Kabul—Tell Jefat: The Fortress of JotapataEl-Buttauf—Yielding a HundredfoldSeffurieh (Sepphoris)Kefr Kenna (Cana?)—An Audacious LegendThe Khan Et TujjarHow Time is Reckoned—The Piety of the Lip—Cursing as an ArtThe "Horns of Hattin" and the Sermon on the MountDecline and Fall of Christian Rule in PalestineSolitude"Clear Shining" after Rain

CHAPTER 43—TIBERIAS
A Storm at Night
Next MorningTiberias—Earthquakes in PalestineTiberias a Holy Place—Worship with Action—Tiberias in the Time of ChristThe ClimateThe Hot BathsThe City in the Great Jewish War—Its Associations with Jewish Literature

CHAPTER 44—THE SEA OF GALILEE
Size and Shape of the Sea of Galilee
A Day's Sail—The Boat and the SailorsA General ViewMejdel (Magdala)"The Valley of Pigeons": The Scene of a Great Military FeatThe Plain of GennesaretMeaning of the NameA Storm on the LakeThe Story of Jacob and Rachel repeatedKhan Minieh—Tell Hum (Capernaum?)The Site of Bethsaida JuliasTomb of Herod PhilipNets and Fishing

CHAPTER 45—KHAN MINIEH, KHERSA, CHORAZIN
At Khan Minieh—The Papyrus
Greek Pilgrims and Their BehaviourIs Khan Minieh Capernaum?Correctness of the Gospel TopographyThe Centipede and the ScorpionMosquitoes and FleasUmm Keis—The Site of Gadara or GergesaAin Tabghah: Supposed Site of BethsaidaKerazeh (Chorazin)—A Crop of BouldersFrom Kerazeh to Safed—The Bedouins and Their WaysKhan Yusef

CHAPTER 46—SAFED, GISCALA, KADESH
At Safed—Its Ancient Glory and Present Squalor
PolygamyView from the CastleTraditional Tomb of Hillel at MeironEl-Jish (Giscala)YarunLake HulehJoshua's Victory at MeromKadeshThe Peasantry of the Holy LandTheir Superstitions

CHAPTER 47—MEROM, DAN, BELFORT 
Beauty of the Lake of Merom—Sacred Trees
The GoadGorge of the HasbanyA Memorial of Sun WorshipTell el-Kadi—A Source of the JordanSite of Dan—Wheat and TaresAbilKhian—Belfort

CHAPTER 48—CÆSAREA PHILIPPI 
The Beauty of Banias
Healing the SickA Cavern FountainCæsarea Philippi in our Lord's Day—Legend of the Woman with the Issue of BloodThe Scene of the TransfigurationThe Temple of PanThe Great Fortress, and Why it was Built

CHAPTER 49—THE LEBANON MOUNTAINS 
The Ascent of Hermon
The DrusesThe Summit of the PassThe DescentA Night at Kefr HowarMahommedans and their FormalismThe Power of IslamismDress in the LebanonThe Approach to DamascusKatana

CHAPTER 50—DAMASCUS 
A Sight for Sore Eyes
A Mean CityIn the Bazaars—The HousesDamascus as a Centre of TradeThe Barada (Abana) and PharparThe Jewish and Christian Quarters—Mahommedan FanaticismThe Great MosqueScriptural References to the CityAn Earthly ParadiseThe Tomb of Saladin and of his Lieutenant

CHAPTER 51—BAALBEK AND THE CEDARS OF LEBANON 
From Damascus in a Diligence
ShtoraBekaa, or "The Cleft"—At BaalbekThe Great TempleTemple of the SunVaults of the Great TempleA Third TempleThe QuarriesThe Slow Spread of ChristianityAinitaThe Remains of the Cedars of Lebanon

CHAPTER 52—BEIROUT 
From Shtora to Beirout
Animals in the EastAt Beirout—Mixture of East and WestThe American Presbyterian MissionsOrphanagesA Trip to the Dog River: A Series of Ancient InscriptionsA Curious Feminine DecorationA Visit to the Dead River

CHAPTER 53—SIDON 
The Vicinity of Sidon
Historical DetailsPopulation, &c.The Ancient Dye-WorksBuried TreasuresSarcophagus of Esmunazar—A Fulfilled Curse

CHAPTER 54—SAREPTA AND TYRE 
Site of Sarepta
The LeontesTyre of To-day—Remnants of AntiquityThe Ancient Industries

CHAPTER 55—CONCLUSION

 

Preface

I must urge it in explanation of my adding to the already copious literature treating, from one aspect or another, of the Holy Land, that the aim I have had in view in writing this book has been different from that of nearly every other work on Palestine, and that, if I have been able to carry it out successfully, the result should unquestionably prove very useful.

I visited Palestine with the intention of gathering illustrations of the sacred writings from its hills and valleys, its rivers and lakes, its plains and uplands, its plants and animals, its skies, its soil, and, above all, from the pictures of ancient times still presented on every side in the daily life of its people. Nothing is more instructive or can be more charming, when reading Scripture, than the illumination of its texts from such sources, throwing light upon its constantly recurring Oriental imagery and local allusions, and revealing the exact meaning of words and phrases which otherwise could not be adequately understood. Its simple narratives, its divine poetry, its prophetic visions, its varied teachings, alike catch additional vividness and force when read with the aid of such knowledge. The Land is, in fact, a natural commentary on the sacred writings which it has given to us, and we study them as it were amidst the life, the scenery, and the local peculiarities which surrounded those to whom the Scriptures were first addressed.

While describing the various districts of the Holy Land and noting their ancient sites, their past history, and their present state, I have sought to gather at every step contributions towards the illustration of the inspired text from every local source. A glance at the Table of Contents will show that all the country is brought before the reader in successive portions, from the extreme south to its northern limits: that is, from Beersheba to Damascus, Baalbek, and Beirout—an area including the whole Palestine of the Old and New Testaments.

The numerous Scripture passages quoted have been taken, as seemed most advantageous for the reader, from the Authorised or the Revised Versions, or from the Greek or Hebrew texts; and variations from the ordinary renderings have been made where, in order to express the full meaning of the original, such a course seemed necessary.

C.G.


 

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