Table of Contents

Notes on Revelation

Four Horsemen


From: "Moza"

Today I was reading "Skywatchers, Shamans & Kings" by E.C. Krupp and he speaks of four 'Guardian Kings' in the Lamaist tradition ("Lamaism is really Buddhism with a Tibetan twist"). They are guardians of the four cardinal directions. They each hold something different in their hands and each have a different colored face:

  1. Dhritarashra's face is white/Guardian King of the East/plucks a lute.
  2. Virupaksha's face is red/Guardian King of the West/holds a serpent and a stupa (Buddhist shrine).
  3. Virudhaka's face is blue/Guardian King of the South/brandishes a sword.
  4. Vaishravana's face is yellow/Guardian King of the North/lifts the banner of victory and has a pet mongoose who can vomit jewels.

There are other instances where the cardinal directions are associated with certain colors. The Taoists have the Mo li brothers aka Diamond Kings:

  1. Mo liqing/eldest brother/western king/white face/has a magic lance named Blue Cloud, sometimes shown with a sword. "The words on the lance say 'earth, water, fire, wind.' It prevails with the power of the elemental forces of nature. When Mo liqing swings it in battle, it inspires a black wind to blow. This wind carries thousands of deadly spears, and a gold fire of flaming snakes follows it. Blinding smoke emerges from the ground and traps the enemy army. His spear and serpent storms are thought to symbolize his control of whirlwinds and waterspouts."
  2. Mo lihong/southern king/red face/has a magic parasol known as the Umbrella of Chaos. "It dazzles with jewels, semiprecious stones, and mother-of-pearl, and the inscription on it reads, 'shut and open heaven and earth.' Any slight movement of the umbrella makes the earth tremor. If Mo lihong lifts it overhead, it hides the sun and the moon. The umbrella seems to have the concession for eclipses, for it cloaks the universe with a cosmic darkness."
  3. Mo lihai/eastern king/blue-green face/plucks his four-string lute and "tunes the winds to his will. One chord blows up a storm. All of his enemies stop to listen, and their camps ignite and burn."
  4. Mo lishou/northern king/ black face/has a "couple of whips and an extraordinary creature, which he keeps in a leopard-skin bag. The animal looks like a white rat. Its name means 'the sable that can turn into a speckled fox,' and when Mo lishou sets it loose, it becomes a white elephant with wings and eats whoever comes its way."

I also found this same theme of color-coordinated directions in American Indian culture (various places on the net):

  Apache Navajo Cherokee
East black white red
South blue blue white
West yellow yellow black
North white black blue

This concept of having different colors representing different directions seems to be pretty universal so I tried applying the same thing to the four horsemen in Revelation chapter 6. Here's what I came up with.

In Numbers 2 there is a breakdown of how the tribes of Israel were to camp around the tabernacle in the wilderness. On the east side was the main camp of Judah (4th son of Jacob); west side Ephraim (Joseph=11th son); north Dan (5th son); south Reuben (1st son). I, at first, thought the stones in the breastplate of the high priest that went along with each one of these sons would correspond to the colors of the horsemen (white, red, black, pale) but it didn't work. There is absolutely no concensus on exactly what each of the stones are so we don't know what colors they are. I could've played around with them and made them fit but it seemed to be too much noodling around.

I then checked out the 12 foundations in the New Jerusalem in Revelation 21:19-20 (although these refer to the apostles) and the definitions seemed to fit perfectly with the first reference work I checked (Online Bible Greek lexicon). Here it is with a lot less noodling but I've gotta confess I stopped looking after the first try.

Revelation 21:19-20
And the foundations of the wall of the city were garnished with all manner of precious stones. The first foundation was jasper;...the fourth, an emerald; The fifth, sardonyx;...the eleventh, a jacinth...

Now to add this information to the beginning of Revelation 6 (with Jerusalem as the central point):

white=south
Rev 6:1,2 And I saw when the Lamb opened one of the seals, and I heard, as it were the noise of thunder, one of the four beasts saying, Come and see. And I saw, and behold a white horse: and he that sat on him had a bow; and a crown was given unto him: and he went forth conquering, and to conquer.

red=north
Rev 6:3,4 And when he had opened the second seal, I heard the second beast say, Come and see. And there went out another horse that was red: and power was given to him that sat thereon to take peace from the earth, and that they should kill one another: and there was given unto him a great sword.

black=west
Rev 6:5,6 And when he had opened the third seal, I heard the third beast say, Come and see. And I beheld, and lo a black horse; and he that sat on him had a pair of balances in his hand. And I heard a voice in the midst of the four beasts say, A measure of wheat for a penny, and three measures of barley for a penny; and see thou hurt not the oil and the wine.

green=east
Rev 6:7,8 And when he had opened the fourth seal, I heard the voice of the fourth beast say, Come and see. And I looked, and behold a pale [Greek chloros=green; yellowish pale] horse: and his name that sat on him was Death, and Hell followed with him. And power was given unto them over the fourth part of the earth, to kill with sword, and with hunger, and with death, and with the beasts of the earth.

____________________

From: Dayona croteaunet@ime.net

Here are a couple more items with regards to color:

From http://www.fotw.net/flags/arabcols.html:

Red
The Khawarij were the first Islamic group to emerge after the assassination of Caliph Uthman III, forming the first republican party in the early days of Islam. Their symbol was the red flag. Arab tribes who participated in the conquest of North Africa and Andalusia carried the red flag, which became the symbol of the Islamic rulers of Andalusia (756-1355). In modern times, red symbolizes the Ashrafs [ie. Sharifians] of the Hijaz and the Hashemites, descendants of the Prophet.

Green: The Fatimid Dynasty (909-1171), North Africa
The Fatimid Dynasty was founded in Morocco by Abdullah Al-Mahdi, and went on rule all of North Africa. They took green as their color, to symbolize their allegiance to Ali, the Prophet's cousin, who was once wrapped in a green coverlet in place of the Prophet in order to thwart an assassination attempt.

White: The Umayyad Dynasty (661-750), Damascus
The Umayyads ruled for ninety years, taking white as their symbolic color as a reminder of the Prophet's first battle at Badr, and to distinguish themselves from the Abbasids, by using white, rather than black, as their color of mourning. Mu'awia Ibn Abi Sufian (661-750), founder of the Umayyad state, proclaimed himself Caliph of Jerusalem.

Black: The Prophet Mohammad (570-632)
In the seventh century, with the rise of Islam and subsequent liberation of Mecca, two flags - one white, one black - were carried. On the white flag was written, "There is no god but God (Allah) and Mohammad is the Prophet of God." In pre-Islamic times, the black flag was a sign of revenge. It was the color of the headdress worn when leading troops into battle. Both black and white flags were placed in the mosque during Friday prayers. The Abbasid Dynasty (750-1258), ruling from Baghdad, took black as a symbol of mourning for the assassination of relatives of the Prophet and in remembrance of the Battle of Karbala.

It is interesting to compare the black horse above. Why are there scales, when the *wheat* and *barley* are measured by volume? Awfully expensive items; I wonder if these grains symbolize two distinct groups of people. Hmmm. The unit of currency is the denarius, of which the word "dinar" evolved.

Introducing the New Islamic Dinar and Durham: http://www.murabitun.org/WITO/intro.html

This new gold standard currency is of course, a specific measure of gold by weight.

Also, concerning the colors of the breastplates in Revelation 9. Compare the Armenian flag: http://www.stm.it/elections/election/maps/armenia.htm

Here is a map of Armenia over the ages: http://www.armeniaemb.org/geninfo/history.htm

Greater Armenia included most of Eastern Anatolia, including a good portion of the Euphrates. One day, out of the blue, I noticed in Rev 16 that the Greek for "kings of the east" looked awefully familiar..."east", meaning literally "rising of the sun". The Greek word for rising happens to be "anatole".

Armenia... land-locked and smack in the middle of the Caspian oil situation. A volitile region, to say the least. Isn't that special.


This correspondence is mostly between Moza (moza@butterfly.mv.com) and Donna (75060.742@compuserve.com), on the Bible Prophecy Research and Study List.

**I think these 4 horses [Rev 6:1-8] correlate to the ones in Zechariah 6:1-8
** where an angel explains that "These are the four spirits of the
**heavens, which go forth from standing before the Lord of all the
**earth." Another interesting thing about the Zechariah horses is
**that they go in specific directions with the white ones going
**north.
**
**That is interesting. How do you interpret the northerly direction? I
** mean what significance do you find in that?

Let me first say that I do believe that scripture explains scripture and the only thing that comes close to the 4 horses in Revelation 6:1-8 are the four chariots/horses in Zechariah 6:1-8 (even the numbering of the chapters and verses seems to jibe). This is just a skeleton explanation and needs some fleshing out, but here goes:

Zechariah 6:1-8
And I turned, and lifted up mine eyes, and looked, and, behold, there came four chariots out from between two mountains; and the mountains were mountains of brass. In the first chariot were red horses; and in the second chariot black horses; And in the third chariot white horses; and in the fourth chariot grisled and bay horses. Then I answered and said unto the angel that talked with me, What are these, my lord? And the angel answered and said unto me, These are the four spirits of the heavens, which go forth from standing before the Lord of all the earth. The black horses which are therein go forth into the north country; and the white go forth after them; and the grisled go forth toward the south country. And the bay went forth, and sought to go that they might walk to and fro through the earth: and he said, Get you hence, walk to and fro through the earth. So they walked to and fro through the earth. Then cried he upon me, and spake unto me, saying, Behold, these that go toward the north country have quieted my spirit in the north country."

Zech 6:1-8 has 4 chariots with the horses IN them (this has to be one of the funniest sights in scripture--horses inside instead of pulling the chariots) in this order:

1. red
2. black
3. white
4a. grisled (spotted, marked) and
4b. bay (dappled [spotted with different colors], piebald [of different colors; esp: spotted or blotched with black and white])

It doesn't say how many horses are in each chariot.

Revelation 6:1-8 horses--just one horse:

1. white
2. red
3. black
4. pale (green, sickly) marked with leprosy? This horse has two people connected with it--Death and Hell (grisled and bay?)

Another thing I've been kicking around is the fact that this horse is green and it's going to go either south or to and fro through the earth (see below). Green seems to be the predominant color in the Middle East (and Greenpeace and the greenies trying to fix the environment). Hamas waves green flags, the flags of the world with green in them include: Egypt, Ethiopia, India, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Italy, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syria, Wales.
Zechariah explains where the horses in their chariots go:

1. black into north country

3rd seal, black horse; "and he that sat on him had a pair of balances in his hand...A measure of wheat for a penny, and three measures of barley for a penny; and see thou hurt not the oil and the wine. Are we seeing this in Russia today?

2. white go into north country after the black

1st seal; "he that sat on him had a bow; and a crown was given unto him: and he went forth conquering and to conquer.

3. grisled go into the south
4. bay go to and fro through the earth

#3 and 4 constitute the 4th seal, pale horse "and his name that sat on him was Death, and Hell followed with him. And power was given unto them over the fourth part of the earth, to kill with sword, and with hunger, and with death, and with the beasts of the earth.

5. red are not given a specific direction

2nd seal; "and power was given to him that sat thereon to take peace from the earth, and that they should kill one another: and there was given unto him a great sword.] The bay seem to actually be pacing back and forth while the red here just seem to be everywhere all the time?

I don't have any ideas why the order of the horses is different all the time.

Zechariah ends with:

"Then cried he upon me, and spake unto me, saying, Behold, these that go toward the north country have quieted my spirit in the north country."

Why aren't the other directions mentioned? I have no clues. Any ideas?

Bye,
Moza

____________________

From: "Donna"

**From: "Moza"
**
**Zechariah ends with:
**
** "Then cried he upon me, and spake unto me, saying, Behold, these that
** go toward the north country have quieted my spirit in the north
** country."
**
** Why aren't the other directions mentioned? I have no clues. Any
** ideas?

Well, I will give it a shot, Moza. I looked up the phrase "quieted my spirit" in Strong's and Thayer's and what I got from it was that it meant literally to "put it to sleep".

5117 nuwach (noo'-akh); a primitive root; to rest, i.e. settle down; used in a great variety of applications, literal and figurative, intransitive, transitive and causative (to dwell, stay, let fall, place, let alone, withdraw, give comfort, etc.): KJV-- cease, be confederate, lay, let down, (be) quiet, remain, (cause to, be at, give, have, make to) rest, set down. Compare 3241.

3241 Yaniym (yaw-neem'); from 5123; asleep; Janim, a place in Palestine: -Janum [from the margin].

While I know the black horse represents famine, I don't interpret it to mean a famine of food necessarily. The phrase corn, wine and oil abounds in the minor prophets (which are all end-time related books)...I think they have a symbolic meaning as follows:

corn = any plantable seed, used interchangeably with wheat and barley ... symbolic of the knowledge of Word of God that we spread by planting seeds in the soil of people's minds (recall the Parable of the Sower Sowing Seed)

wine = real understanding of the Word ... remember the new wine in old skins analogy

oil = the presence of the Holy Spirit

Since I know from Amos 8:11 that the end-times famine of our Father is NOT for bread and wine but a famine for the Word of God ... I suggest that the black horse is not removing FOOD but the Word of God out of the north country.

Followed closely by the white horse, which you have indicated (and I agree with) is AC ... I think it is deception that the white horse brings. If you have a scarcity of real truth then deception can flourish. What does AC want to conquer ? He wants to steal the inheritance from God's true children and the throne from God. That's what he has been after from day one.

Amos 8:11
11 Behold, the days come, saith the Lord GOD, that I will send a famine in the land, not a famine of bread, nor a thirst for water, but of hearing the words of the LORD: (KJV)

As for the north country ... I wonder sometimes if we don't need to look back to God's chosen people for understanding of that. It was no accident that the tribes of Israel were divided up into two kingdoms ... one northern and one southern. Perhaps you will not find meaning in this but I do since I believe that the northern kingdom was scattered all over the world as a result of their captivity and lost their national identity and yet God recovered them by drawing them back into the fold as the primarily Christian nations.

So when Zechariah says that the black and white horses are sent to the north country, I believe he is telling us that there will be a Famine for the true teaching of the Word of God and that as a result Deception will abound amongst the Christian nations.

These are called the "lost tribes" by some. I prefer to think of them as hidden, myself. If you look at the word for north and then follow it back to it's root you can see a clear relationship to something "hidden".

THE NORTH
6828 tsaphown (tsaw-fone'); or tsaphon (tsaw-fone'); from 6845; properly, hidden, i.e. dark; used only of the north as a quarter (gloomy and unknown): KJV-- north (-ern, side, -ward, wind).

6845 tsaphan (tsaw-fan'); a primitive root; to hide (by covering over); by implication, to hoard or reserve; figuratively to deny; specifically (favorably) to protect, (unfavorably) to lurk: KJV-- esteem, hide (-den oneself,), lay up, lurk (be set) privily, (keep) secret (-ly, place). ***. tsaphon. See 6828.

Perhaps the other directions are not mentioned because they are of lesser importance to God as the people's they deal with are not his "chosen ones".

Just a thought.

Donna

____________________

From: "Donna"

Oh yeah ... I forgot to mention that you should take note that the four beasts are told not to hurt the oil and the wine. Using my suggested symbolic meanings then you would find that they are told not to bother those that have real understanding of God's Word and the presence of the Holy Spirit. Famine of the Word and Deception can't really hurt one of God's spirit-filled, knowledgeable children because we carry it with us.

Rev 6:6
6 And I heard a voice in the midst of the four beasts say, A measure of wheat for a penny, and three measures of barley for a penny; and see thou hurt not the oil and the wine. (KJV)

This should also cause you to think of the Parable of the 10 virgins ... all 10 waiting for the bridgegroom to come ... this means they KNEW the bridegroom was coming and so they were religious folk waiting for him. Some took just a little oil and missed out because they had to go "buy" some (and from whom?) ... some took enough oil to keep their lamps burning through the night and they went with the bridegroom to the wedding. What oil was required ? The Holy Spirit. He's the only protection we have from deception and lack of teaching.

It reminds me of something else but I've yet to make up my mind whether it's related or not. I am one of those that believes that the Mark of the Beast is spiritual rather than physical. Since we just talked about the Famine being for the Word of God rather than food what do you bet that the "buying and selling" related to the Mark of the Beast is the buying and selling of corn, wine and oil ... who're ya buying it from ? Satan's peddling deception ... it sure can "look" like the real thing but it won't burn in the lamp.

Just some random thoughts.

Donna

____________________

From: "Donna"

I am going to refer you to these verses of Rev 4:1-5 and so I print them here at the top for easy reference. I offer these thoughts for your consideration.

Rev 4:1-5
1 After this I looked, and, behold, a door was opened in heaven: and the first voice which I heard was as it were of a trumpet talking with me; which said, Come up hither, and I will shew thee things which must be hereafter.
2 And immediately I was in the spirit: and, behold, a throne was set in heaven, and one sat on the throne.
3 And he that sat was to look upon like a jasper and a sardine stone: and there was a rainbow round about the throne, in sight like unto an emerald.
4 And round about the throne were four and twenty seats: and upon the seats I saw four and twenty elders sitting, clothed in white raiment; and they had on their heads crowns of gold.
5 And out of the throne proceeded lightnings and thunderings and voices: and there were seven lamps of fire burning before the throne, which are the seven Spirits of God. (KJV)

There are a couple of things I want to point out to you in the Rev 6:1-8 passage that we were talking about earlier.

Rev 6:1-8
1 And I saw when the Lamb opened one of the seals, and I heard, as it were the noise of thunder, one of the four beasts saying, Come and see.

I kind of think this "noise of thunder" is the voice of Almighty God; if you notice in Rev 4:1-5 John describes the "lightenings and thunderings and voices" that proceed out of the throne. God seems to speak with a voice like a a thundering trumpet ... trumpet and thunder.

2 And I saw, and behold a white horse: and he that sat on him had a bow; and a crown was given unto him: and he went forth conquering, and to conquer.

We know that Satan can transform himself into an angel of light ... the color white is the color of light ... representing innocence.

WHITE (Thayer's) 3022 leukos- light, bright, brilliant
a) brilliant from whiteness, (dazzling) white
1) used of the garments of angels, and of those exalted to the splendor of the heavenly state
2) shining or white garments worn on festive or state occasions
3) used of white garments as the sign of innocence and purity of the soul
b) dead white; used of the whitening color of ripening grain

But right off the innocence is suspect because a) we are warned elsewhere that the dragon wears lambs clothing and b) he carries a fake bow. Notice that it is not a bow like in "bow and arrows" ... there are no arrows. It's a bow like a "rainbow" ... a fake rainbow. Notice in Rev 4:3 that around God's thrown there is a rainbow. This bow that the rider on the white horse is given is SIMPLE FABRIC. Notice that it's root word has to do with producing fruit from seed. What fruit and what seed ? It's a fake rainbow.

BOW (Strong's)
5115 toxon (tox'-on); from the base of 5088; a bow (apparently as the simplest fabric): KJV-- bow. 5088 tikto (tik'-to); a strengthened form of a primary teko (tek'-o) (which is used only as alternate in certain tenses); to produce (from seed, as a mother, a plant, the earth, etc.), literally or figuratively: KJV-- bear, be born, bring forth, be delivered, be in travail.

We also know that that Christ comes later and he has already "conquered" through his death and resurrection so we can be fairly sure this is not he. No, this is Satan out to overcome God's people and subdue the world. His last ditch effort to declare himself God. Christ does not tell us to be overcomers for nothing ... overcomers not OVERCOME.

CONQUER (Strong's)
3528 nikao (nik-ah'-o); from 3529; to subdue (literally or figuratively): KJV-- conquer, overcome, prevail, get the victory.

3 And when he had opened the second seal, I heard the second beast say, Come and see.

Come and be very surprised ! he means.

SEE (Strong's)
2396 ide (id'-eh); second person singular imperative active of 1492; used as an interjection to denote surprise; lo!: KJV-- behold, lo, see.

4 And there went out another horse that was red: and power was given to him that sat thereon to take peace from the earth, and that they should kill one another: and there was given unto him a great sword.

Let's think a minute. We are in a highly symbolic book, what does a sword represent ? What is Christ's double-edged sword ? It's the Word of God. Why wouldn't this "sword" also be words rather than steel ? What is at the root of all the major battles if not religion ? What starts all wars if not words ? Red is the color of fire ... firey words and passion.

And what is peace ? Perhaps it represents the peace of salvation, the way that leads to peace as in Thayer's definition. You don't have peace unless you have salvation. If Satan obscures the way to salvation then he's taken peace from the world.

PEACE
1515 eirene-
1) a state of national tranquillity, exemption from the rage and havoc of war
2) peace between individuals, that is, harmony, concord
3) security, safety, prosperity, felicity, (because peace and harmony make and keep things safe and prosperous)
4) used of the Messiah's peace, the way that leads to peace (salvation)
5) used of Christianity, the tranquil state of a soul assured of its salvation through Christ, and so fearing nothing from God and content with its earthly lot, of whatsoever sort that is
6) the blessed state of devout and upright men after death

5 And when he had opened the third seal, I heard the third beast say, Come and see. And I beheld, and lo a black horse; and he that sat on him had a pair of balances in his hand.

Notice the balances in the hand of the rider of the black horse. This is a symbol of bondage and slavery. The rider of the black horse comes to put the world back under bondage. It is not Christ's yoke but Satan's. Come and See - look and be very surprised about it !

Thayer's
2218 zugos-
1) a yoke
a) a yoke that is put on draught cattle
b) metaphorically, used of any burden or bondage
1) as that of slavery
2) used of troublesome laws imposed on one, especially of the Mosaic law, hence the name is so transferred to the commands of Christ as to contrast them with the commands of the Pharisees which were a veritable `yoke'; yet even Christ's commands must be submitted to, though easier to be kept
2) a balance, a pair of scales

6 And I heard a voice in the midst of the four beasts say, A measure of wheat for a penny, and three measures of barley for a penny; and see thou hurt not the oil and the wine.

Remembering here of course that the famine of the latter days according to Amos 8 is for the Word of God and not for bread ... it goes along with all I've just showed you. These horses come to put us back under bondage, obscure the way to the salvation of Christ and steal the Word of God from us. But they can't hurt those that have the OIL = Holy Spirit and the WINE = real understanding of God's Word. How do you have those ? STUDY, STUDY, STUDY, PRAY, PRAY, PRAY ! And to the RIGHT Lord, not the fake.

7 And when he had opened the fourth seal, I heard the voice of the fourth beast say, Come and see.

Come and look with surprise !

8 And I looked, and behold a pale horse: and his name that sat on him was Death, and Hell followed with him. And power was given unto them over the fourth part of the earth, to kill with sword, and with hunger, and with death, and with the beasts of the earth. (KJV)

Whose name is Death ? I think if you look around in scripture you will find that Death is one of Satan's names. Who brought death on the world through the serpent ? If you follow him, Satan will bring upon you not only the death of the body but the second death, death of the soul.

How did Satan get to Adam and Eve in the garden ? How did he tempt Christ ? How does he go after any man ? WORDS. Satan's sword is his word. And when you listen to him instead of God's Word you will go hungry ... and receive death ... death of body and soul.

And the beasts of the earth ... remember you're still in the book of symbology. Notice that these words also connote savage brutal men ... take it back to the root word and you get a sense of a destructive trap being prepared.

BEASTS OF THE EARTH (Strong's and Thayer's)

2342 therion (thay-ree'-on); diminutive from the same as 2339; a dangerous animal: KJV-- (venomous, wild) beast.

2342 therion-
1) an animal
2) a wild animal, a wild beast, a beast
3) metaphorically, a brutal, bestial man, savage, ferocious

2339 thera (thay'-rah); from ther (a wild animal, as game); hunting, i.e. (figuratively) destruction: KJV-- trap.

2339 thera-
1) a hunting of wild beasts to destroy them
2) metaphorically, used of preparing destruction for men

____________________

From: "Donna"

Someone reminded me that white = light = truth.

** Light also represents "truth". Don't hide
** your "light" under a bushel, Christ taught us. And, I am the "light
** of the world". It goes along with the rest of what you present to us.


From: Wight (wight@alaska.net)

Here is my interpretation of Rev. 6:1-8:
This passage is talking about the antichrist and the stages to his rule. In the beginning, he is going to appear to bring peace, hence the white horse, but eventually there will be open warfare(red horse). The third seal (black horse) represent famine: "a quart of wheat for a day's wages...". Again, this is like a timeline of the tribulation. The pale horse clearly represents death. The death is probably the inevitable result of disease that accompanies war and famine. So again, I think the white horse represents "false peace" of the antichrist.


From "Moza"

Rev 6:2
And I saw, and behold a white horse: and he that sat on him had a bow; and a crown was given unto him: and he went forth conquering, and to conquer.

I saw a show recently (11/98) called "Warhorse: A Beast for Heroes" on the History Channel and they showed many representations of the aristocracy riding holding a bow and a page riding behind carrying the bows.

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The month of Kislev's [Oct/Nov] sign is Keshet/Sagittarius. "Kislev's sign is The Bow (Keshet in Hebrew)."

(Ohr Somayach "Seasons of the Moon" email list)

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"The Hebrew and Syriac name of the sign is Kesith, which means the Archer (as in Genesis 21:20). The Arabic name is Al Kaus, the arrow. In Coptic it is Pimacre, the graciousness, or beauty of the coming forth. In Greek it is Toxotes, the archer, and in Latin Sagittarius.

"There are 69 stars in the sign, viz., five of the 3rd magnitude (all in the bow), nine of the 4th, etc.

"The names of the brightest stars are significant:

"Hebrew, Naim, which means the gracious one...Hebrew, Nehushta, the going or sending forth...We see the same in the Arabic names which have come down to us: Al Naim, the gracious one; Al Shaula, the dart; Al Warida, who comes forth; Ruchba or rami, the riding of the bowman."

(The Witness of the Stars, E. W. Bullinger).

The 3 constellations associated with this sign include:
1. LYRA (The Harp) Praise prepared for the conqueror
2. ARA (The Altar) Consuming fire prepared for his enemies
3. DRACO (The Dragon) The old serpent, or the Devil, cast down from Heaven

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Rev 6:5-6
And when he had opened the third seal, I heard the third beast say, Come and see. And I beheld, and lo a black horse; and he that sat on him had a pair of balances in his hand. And I heard a voice in the midst of the four beasts say, A measure of wheat for a penny, and three measures of barley for a penny; and see thou hurt not the oil and the wine.

"The sign of the month of Tishrei [Sept/Oct], Libra, is called in Hebrew Moznaim, which literally means 'balances.' It's not difficult to see the connection between the symbol of the balances and the month of Tishrei, for the first day of Tishrei is Rosh Hashana, a day when the future of the world and all its inhabitants literally hangs in the balance."

(Ohr Somayach, Seasons of the Moon email list)

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"The Hebrew name is Mozanaim, the Scales, weighing. Its name in Arabic is Al Zubena, pruchase, or redemption. In Coptic, it is Lambadia, station of propitiation (from Lam, graciousness, and badia, branch). The name by which it has come down to us is the Latin, Libra, which means weighing, as used in the Vulgate (Isa 40:12).

"Libra contains three bright stars whose names supply us with the whole matter. The brightest (in the lower scale), is named Zuben al Genubi, which means the purchase, or price which is deficient. This points to the fact that man has been utterly ruined. He is 'weighed in the balances and found wanting.'"

The second brightest "al Gubi, heaped up, or high." The third brightest "is called Zuben Akrabi or Zuben al Akrab, which means the price of the conflict."

(The Witness of the Stars, E. W. Bullinger)


It is an interesting fact of history that some cultures favored the bow as a weapon of war, considering it a "noble weapon": Akkadians, Egyptians, Assyrians, Babylonians, and Parthians, to name but a few. All used the bow in battle and prided themselves in their prowess with it. Other cultures, including the Roman, did not consider the bow a valorous weapon of war. Yet the Romans did realize the practical importance of archery as a long-distance form of warfare and therefore normally had auxiliary contingents of archers attached to their battle groups. These were usually either mercenaries or troops contributed by dependent kings.

(The Sea of Galilee, Shelley Wachsmann)


"...in [Revelation] 6:2 the bowman sitting on a white horse, to whom a crown was given, is the Parthian king. The bow was not a Roman weapon: it was not used in Roman armies except by a few auxiliaries levied among outlying tribes, who carried their national weapon. The Parthian weapon was the bow; the warriors were all horsemen; and they could use the bow as well when they were fleeing as when they were charging. The writers of that period often mention the Parthian terror on the East, and their devastating incursions were so much dreaded at that time that Trajan undertook a Parthian war in 115. Virgil foretells a Roman victory: the bow and the horse have been useless:--

With backward bows the Parthians shall be there,
And, spurring from the fight, confess their fear.

Colour was also an important and significant detail. The Parthian king in 6:2 rides on a white horse. White had been the sacred colour among the old Persians, for whom the Parthians stood in later times; and sacred white horses accompanied every Persian army. The commentators who try to force a Roman meaning on this figure say that the Roman general, when celebrating a Triumph, rode on a white horse. This is a mistake; the general in a Triumph wore the purple and gold-embroidered robes of Jupiter, and was borne like the god in a four-horse car.

The use of colour here as symbolical is illustrated by the custom of Tamerlane. When he laid siege to a city, he put up white tents, indicating clemency to the enemy. If resistance was prolonged forty days, he changed the tents, and put up red ones, portending a bloody capture. If obstinate resistance was persisted in for other forty days, black tents were substituted: the city was to be sacked with a general massacre. The meaning of the colours differs; there was no universal principle of interpretation; significance depended to some extent on circumstances and individual preference."

(The Letters to the Seven Churches of Asia, W. M. Ramsay)


Mark of the Beast


Moza

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