August 1999 Eclipse Path
Yugoslavia, Romania, Bulgaria
|Subotica||1m42s||10:53:46.0||*Ger. Maria Theresiopel or Theresiopel, Hung. Szabadka, city N Yugoslavia, in the Vojvodina region of Serbia. An important railway junction and an industrial center. Originally a Roman outpost, became a royal free city of Hungary until its transfer to Yugoslavia by the Treaty of Trianon (1920).
*Also: Maria-Theresiopol (tn., Yug.); Szabadka (tn., Yug.)Before the end of the 18th century there was a synagogue, and 13 families had official status in the city. When the Hungarian Fascist troops entered the city on April 11, 1941, the only resistance was made by several Jewish youths who threw bombs. Most of them were secretly tried and executed. During the occupation the fate of Subotica Jews was little different from that of Novi-Sad and Vojvodina Jewry. They were arrested en masse, placed in an improvised ghetto nearby, transferred to Bacsalmas in old Hungary, and then deported to and murdered at Auschwitz. The remaining Jews of Novi-Sad and smaller places in the Ba"ka were first gathered in a four-story mill in Subotica-3,500 people-before being herded into cattle wagons and sent to Poland.
|Arad||2m14s||10:56:42:8||*On the Muresul River. It is an important railroad junction and a leading regional commercial and industrial center. Located on the site of an old Roman outpost, the first mention of Arad dates from the 12th cent. Long (c.1551-1685) under Turkish rule, Arad passed in 1685 to the Austrians and in 1849 to the Hungarians, who made it the headquarters of their insurrection against the Hapsburg Empire. In 1920, Arad became part of Romania.
*The city's educational and cultural institutions include a theological seminary, a teacher training school, a state theatre, a philharmonic orchestra, and a museum containing exhibits on the Hungarian revolution of 1848-49.
*The 18th-century citadel was built by Empress Maria Theresa.
*Jews are first recorded there in 1717. At the end of World War I a considerable number of Orthodox Jews settled there, and established a community. Arad Jews shared the fate of the Jewry of Rumania between the two world wars, suffering from increasing anti-Semitism. The community however survived World War II. Subsequently, there was a progressive decrease due to emigration from the country, mainly to Israel.
|Timisoara||2m02s||10:56:53.3||*On the Beja Canal. The chief city of the former Banat of Temesvar, it is a railroad hub and an industrial center. Is a Roman Catholic and an Orthodox episcopal see and has a
university (founded 1945) and other institutions of higher education. It was an ancient Roman
settlement and came under Magyar domination in 896 and was annexed to Hungary in 1010. An
important frontier fortress, Timisoara was held by the Turks from 1552 until its liberation in 1716 by Eugene of Savoy. The Treaty of Passarowitz (1718) formally restored it to Austria-Hungary. It
passed to Romania by the Treaty of Trianon (1920). In Dec. 1989, demonstrations protesting the
removal of an outspoken priest, L˙slo T"k,s, sparked the revolution that led to the downfall of
Nicolae Ceausescu's Communist regime.
*The inner city is surrounded by boulevards, which have replaced the former ramparts. The Roman Catholic and Orthodox cathedrals, the city hall, and other important buildings date from the 18th cent. A regional museum is housed in the 14th-15th-century Hunyadi castle.
*By the first half of the 16th century there were permanent Jewish settlers. When under direct Austrian rule the situation of the Jews in Timisoara was more difficult than in any other part of Hungary. The Jewish legislation (Judenordnung) of 1776 for Jews in the Banat region placed in many restrictions on the Jews of Timisoara but their situation improved when the region was returned to Hungary in 1779. Two synagogues, one Sephardi and one Ashkenazi, were built in 1762. The Sephardi congregation continued to exist independently until after World War II. A magnificent synagogue was erected for the main Ashkenazi congregation in 1862. Timisoara was an important Zionist center. A Zionist organization was founded there between the two world wars. Timisoara was the headquarters of the Zionist Organization, Jewish National Fund (Keren Kayemet le-Israel), and Palestine Foundation Fund (Keren Hayesod) in Transylvania. The National Jewish Party was active in the city, and won support in the elections. Between 1920 and 1940 the periodical of the Transylvanian Zionist Organization, Uj Kor, was published in Timisoara. These organizations tried to continue after World War II but in 1947-48 they were forced to disband. Throughout the period between the two world wars the community suffered from anti-Semitism. In 1936 the Iron Guard attacked a Jewish theater audience, exploding a bomb in their midst; two Jews were killed and many were wounded. From 1940 the position of the Jews deteriorated, because of economic restrictions and confiscations. In 1941 many Jewish men were sent to forced labor. Later all the communal property was confiscated, including land. Until 1945 Timisoara was the center of the German organizations of the Banat region. In 1944 the local German civilian organization also took action against the Jews, but in September of that year the Red Army entered the city. After the war the National Jewish Organization, formed to assist the Communist Party program, established a branch in Timisoara, and its leaders attempted to liquidate Zionism and impose Communism. Jews were accused of underground Zionist activity, and some were imprisoned. There were 13,600 Jews in Timisoara in 1947, but their number gradually decreased through emigration to Israel and other countries.
|Lugoj||2m18s||10:58:10.6||*Jews settled in Lugoj and its surroundings at the beginning of the 18th century. During World War I, 173 members of the community served in the Hungarian army. An elementary school, founded in 1833, functioned until 1944. A large synagogue was erected in 1842. There were also some smaller synagogues. Zionist organizations were active in Lugoj, and from 1934 the Zionists were the dominant element in the community leadership. Between 1941 and 1942, the period of the Rumanian Fascist regime, some of the Jewish men were conscripted for forced labor. After World War II the Jewish population increased, as Jewish refugees from the surrounding districts and northern Bukovina settled there (1,620 in 1947). The number of Jews declined from the 1950s through emigration to Israel.|
|Deva||1m47s||10:59:48.0||Dictionary: 1. Hinduism, Buddhism.a god or divinity. 2. Zoroastrianism.one of an order of evil spirits.|
|Hunedoara||2m10s||10:59:54.0||*Hung. Vajdahunyad, city (1986 est. pop. 88,500), W central Romania, in Transylvania. A major industrial center, it has extensive ironworks and steelworks. Iron ore and coal are mined nearby.
*The city is noted for its historic Hunyadi Castle, built in the 15th cent. on the site of an old citadel.
|Curtea-De-Arges||2m14s||11:03:41.6||*A district administrative and trade center, it has industries producing pottery
and wood products. Itserved (1330-1430) as the seat of the dukes of Walachia
and became (18th cent.) an Orthodox bishopric.
*Its 16th-century Byzantine cathedral (rebuilt 19th cent.) became the burial place of the kings of Romania.
|Pitesti||2m23s||11:04:18.4||*On the Argesul River. It is the administrative and commercial center of the Arges region and an important rail junction. Famous for its wines. There are several resorts nearby.|
|Tirgoviste||2m08s||11:05:16.0||*Oil refining and the manufacture of oil-field equipment and iron and steel are the chief industries. Was the administrative, political, and cultural center of Walachia from 1383 until 1698, when the capital was moved to Bucharest. It was destroyed by the Turks in 1737. The town is now the seat of an Orthodox bishopric.
*Many tourists are attracted by TOrgoviste's historic buildings, including a remarkable 16th-century cathedral with nine towers, a 15th-century monastery, and the ruins of a 14th-century castle.
|Ploiesti||1m26s||11:06:17.5||*It is the chief center of the Romanian petroleum industry and of the Ploiesti oil region. The city is a railroad hub and is linked by oil pipelines with Bucharest and the ports of Giurgiu on the Danube River and Constanta on the Black Sea. It has large refineries and oil storage installations and is an industrial center with varied manufactures. Founded in 1596 by Prince Michael the Brave of Walachia, Ploiesti grew in the 19th cent. into the largest oil-producing center of SE Europe. After Romania signed (1940) a mutual cooperation pact with the Axis powers that provided substantial Romanian oil to Germany, the Allies heavily bombed the city. An earthquake in 1940 also inflicted severe damage. After World War II, Romania nationalized the Ploiesti oil industry, which until then had been owned largely by foreign interests. Under Communist rule, massive investments in the petroleum and petrochemical
industries were made in the drive to modernize.
*The first Jews settled in Ploesti in the second half of the 17th century. n the early 18th century the synagogue was demolished by order of the ruler, and the Jews had to move two kilometers out of the city. From the middle of the 19th century many dealt in oil, developing Ploesti into a center for that commodity. After the emancipation of the Jews in Rumania, Jews officiated as representatives on the city council and for a time a Jew served as vice-mayor. Immediately after the outbreak of World War II, Ploesti became a center of German interest because of its oil resources. Units of the German army appeared in the city as early as the autumn of 1940. After Antonescu assumed power (September 1940), Cojocaru, a member of the Iron Guard, was appointed commander of the local police. Immediately upon taking over the post he introduced serious measures against the Jews, i.e., confiscation of their businesses and wide-scale arrests of merchants and community leaders. On the night of Nov. 27/28, 1940, 11 of the Jewish prisoners were executed in a nearby forest. During the same period members of the Iron Guard destroyed three synagogues and the Luca Moise school. A number of Jews were sent to the Tirgu-jiu concentration camp. After the outbreak of war with the U.S.S.R. (June 1941), all the Jewish men from ages 18 to 60 were arrested and sent to the TeiS concentration camp. Youth from the ages of 13 to 18 remained in Ploesti and were mobilized into different forms of forced labor. In January 1942 men over the age of 50 were released from TeiS and returned to the city. The rest were scattered throughout various cities in Rumania but were forbidden to leave their new locations. Later on they were sent to do forced labor in various places in Bessarabia and Moldavia. After the war, practically all of Ploesti's Jews returned to the city.
|Bucharest||2m22s||11:06:58.9||*Rom. Bucuresti, capital and largest city of Romania, on the DOmbovita River, a tributary of the Danube. It is Romania's chief industrial and communications center. The city, probably founded in the late 14th cent., was first known as Cetatea Dambovitei [Dambovita citadel] and was a military fortress and commercial center astride the trade routes to Constantinople. It became (1459) a residence of the Walachian princes and changed its name (15th cent.) to Bucharest. In 1698 the city became the capital of Walachia under Constantine
Brancovan; after the union (1859) of Walachia and Moldavia it was made (1861) the capital of
Romania. The Treaty of Bucharest (1913) stripped Bulgaria of its conquests in the Second Balkan War. During World War I, Bucharest was occupied (1916-18) by the Central
Powers. After Romania's surrender to the Allies (Aug., 1944) in World War II, German planes
severely bombed the city; Soviet troops entered on Aug. 31, by which time a coalition of leftist
parties had seized power. Bucharest served as headquarters of the Cominform from 1948 to 1956. Today it is a modern city, with parks, libraries, museums, and theaters, and is the seat of the patriarch of the Romanian Orthodox Church.
*Landmarks include the Metropolitan Church (1649), the 17th-century St. George Church, the Radu Voda (1649) and Stavropoleos (1724-30) churches, and the Athenaeum, devoted to art and music.
*Among the city's educational institutions are the old university (founded 1864), the new university (1935), an engineering college, and several academies and scientific institutes. During the 1980s, Romanian President Nicolae CeauĜescu attempted to transform Bucharest into a model socialist-planned city. He ordered the demolition of much of the Old City to make way for massive new state buildings, such as the Museum of Romanian History, in which his body was to be entombed. To provide the city with a river, he had the Dimbovita River rechanneled through S Bucharest.
*Capital of the principality of Walachia. Up to the 19th century almost the entire Jewish population of Walachia was concentrated in Bucharest. When Prince Michael the Brave revolted against the Turks in November 1593, he ordered the massacre of the Jews in Bucharest along with the other Turkish subjects. Toward the middle of the 17th century, a new community, now predominantly Ashkenazi, was established. The populace, afraid of Jewish economic competition, was intensely hostile toward the Jews, and in 1793 the residents of the RDzvan suburb petitioned Prince Alexander Moruzi to remove Jews who had recently settled there and demolish the synagogue they had erected. The prince ordered the synagogue to be closed (January 1794), but refused to have the Jews removed from the suburb, and a few days later even issued a decree affording them protection. In 1801 there were anti-Jewish riots following blood libel charges, and 128 Jews were killed or wounded. The community again suffered persecution during the Russian occupation of Bucharest from 1806 to 1812, and in particular during the Greek revolt (Hetairia) under Alexander Ypsilanti and its suppression by the Turks in 1821. During the second half of the 19th century a number of anti-Jewish outbreaks occurred in Bucharest. In 1866, when the legislative assembly was discussing the legal position of the Jews, an excited mob started a riot in which the new Choir Temple, then under construction, was demolished. Another serious riot took place in December 1897, when hundreds of Jewish houses and shops were attacked and looted. In September, 1940, with the accession to power of the Antonescu-Iron Guard coalition, Bucharest became one of the main centers of the anti-Jewish activities of the new regime and of the Legionnaire terror. The terror culminated in a bloody pogrom during the Legionnaire rebellion (Jan. 21-24, 1941), when 120 Jews were murdered, thousands arrested and maltreated, Jewish houses, shops, and public institutions destroyed and pillaged, and a large number of synagogues desecrated and devastated. Until the end of the Antonescu regime (August 1944), Bucharest Jews were subjected to all the restrictions and persecutions which were the lot of the rest of Rumanian Jewry. Thousands of Jews were deprived of employment. After the establishment of the Communist regime in 1947, all Jewish national, cultural, and welfare institutions in Bucharest were gradually closed down. In the late 1960s there were 14 regular synagogues in Bucharest, including the Choir Temple.
|Calarasi||2m16s||11:09:27.1||*Jews began to settle there in the first half of the 19th century. The wave of pogroms in Russia in October 1905 also hit Kalarash, where 60 Jews were killed, 300 were injured, and over 200 houses were burned down. When World War II broke out, some of the community managed to escape from Kalarash, apparently to the Soviet Union. Those caught on the way were either killed on the spot or deported to Transnistria. In July 1941 Rumanian troops assembled all the remaining Jews in Kalarash and took them to a forest not far from the city, where a deep ditch had been prepared. Some 250 Jews were thrown into the ditch and killed. This action had been ordered by the commander of the gendarmerie legion in the LapuSna district, Lieut. Col. Nicolai Caracas. The local Kalarash gendarmerie commander also took part in the slaughter and looted Jewish property. The only synagogue was closed down by the authorities in 1961 and converted into a public library. The baking of mazzot was stopped in 1962. In 1964 seven Jews were arrested for economic crimes allegedly committed 20 years earlier.|
|Silistra||2m21s||11:09:24.9||*Port on the Danube River. The Roman Durostorum, it was founded in 29 B.C. and became an important town of Moesia. Its importance continued under Byzantine and
Bulgar rule. After the Turkish conquest (1388) the town was strongly fortified. It was captured
(1877) by the Russians and ceded to Bulgaria. Transferred to Romania in 1913, it was returned to Bulgaria in 1940.
*There are several mosques and the ruins of an ancient fortress. The name is sometimes spelled Silistria.
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