August 11, 1999 Eclipse Path
|Kastamonu||2m17s||11:24:20.7||*Capital of Kastamonu prov. It is a manufacturing center, noted for its textiles and copper utensils, and is the chief city of a region rich in minerals. It was captured by the Ottoman Turks in 1393, was taken by Tamerlane in 1403, and was regained by the Ottomans in 1460.|
|Amasya||2m10s||11:28:48.6||*Amasiya, chief district town in northern Turkey. The Turks found a small Greek-speaking (Romaniot) Jewish community in Amasiya. After 1492 exiles from Spain settled there in a separate street, where they were merchants and craftsmen. In their neighborhood lived Greeks, and Armenians, popularly called "Amalekites." Amasiya was an important town during the rule of Sultan Suleiman I, the Magnificent (1520-66). His son Mustafa, was sanjakbey ("district governor") and was known for his hatred of the Jews. At that time a blood libel was spread by Christians when an Armenian woman reported seeing the slaughter of a Christian boy by the Jews in order to use his blood at the Passover feast. Several Jews were imprisoned and tortured and some "confessed" to the crime and were hanged. Finally, the Armenian who supposedly was murdered was found and the government punished the accusers. The precise date of this libel is unknown, but it occurred between 1530 and 1545. Moses Hamon, the sultan's personal physician, now succeeded in obtaining from him a firman which prohibited governors and judges to judge cases of blood libel, and ordered these to be brought before the sultan himself. During the 17th century most of Amasiya's Jews moved to Tokat and Ankara. At the beginning of the 18th century only a few Jewish families remained in Amasiya. There is no longer a Jewish community there.|
|Zile||2m10s||11:29:26.6||*Zela, ancient city of Pontus, NE Asia Minor. There Mithridates VI defeated Triarius c.67 B.C., and in 47 B.C. Julius Caesar defeated Pharnaces, king of Pontus, recording the victory in his famous dispatch "Veni, vidi, vici" [I came, I saw, I conquered]. It is the modern Zile, Turkey.|
|Tokat||2m09s||11:30:28.6||*Capital of Tokat prov., N central Turkey. It is an agricultural market with copper manufactures. An important town in Roman times, it declined under the Byzantines but revived after its capture by the Ottoman Turks in 1402.
*There was a small ancient Jewish community in Tokat. As a result of the Amasiya blood libel (1530) some groups of Jewish refugees from that town settled for a while in Tokat, where they established their own community; most of them returned to Amasiya in 1565. Tokat also was the scene of a blood libel, instigated by the Armenians; as a result of intervention by Moses Hamon, Sultan Suleiman's chief physician, the Jews were able to prove their innocence. At the beginning of the 19th century about 100 families lived in the community; by 1927 only 20 families were left. There are two Jewish cemeteries and an old synagogue. Jews originally handled the town's commerce, but they were gradually replaced by the Armenians who used more up-to-date methods and mastered the foreign languages required for the export-import trade. As a result of this, the Jewish community scattered.
|Sivas||2m07s||11:32:07.4||*Capital of Sivas prov., central Turkey, on the Kizil Irmak. An important trade and manufacturing center. Iron ore is mined nearby. Known as Sebaste, Sebastia, or Cabira in ancient times, it was an important city of Asia Minor under the Romans, the Byzantines, and the Seljuk Turks. Part of the Seljuk empire of Rum in the late 12th cent., Sivas fell to the Mongols and later (15th cent.) to the Ottoman Turks. In 1919, Kemal Atat?rk held an important nationalist congress there.|
|Diyarbakir||1m20s||11:40:02.8||*Anc. Amida, capital of Diyarbakir prov., on the Tigris (Dicle) River. It is the trade center for a region producing grains, melons, cotton, copper ore, and petroleum. A Roman colony from A.D. 230, the city was taken (mid-4th cent.) by Shapur II of Persia. It was conquered by the Arabs in 638 and later was held by the Seljuk Turks and Persians. The Ottoman Turks captured Diyarbakir in 1515. It is a Kurdish population center.
*The city retains the magnificent black basalt fortification walls mainly constructed by Constantine I in the 4th cent.
*Diyarbakir Univ. is there.
|Zakhu||2m05s||11:44:53.3||*Town in the province of Mosul in Iraqi Kurdistan; location of an ancient Jewish community. In 1891 the Muslims attacked the Jewish community, looting the houses of the Jews, and set fire to one of the synagogues which was burned down together with its Scrolls of the Law. In 1892 the persecutions increased in intensity. Jews were murdered; heavy taxes were imposed on members of the community; they were required to pay ransom, and many were arrested and tortured. The Tigris overflowed its banks and destroyed 150 Jewish houses; many Jews drowned and synagogues were destroyed. Jews from Zakho were the first after 1920 to emigrate to Palestine. Six thousand settled in Jerusalem before the establishment of the State of Israel. With the establishment of the state, all the remaining Jewish inhabitants of Zakho emigrated to Israel.|
|Al-Mawsil (Mosul)||0m30s||11:46:53.7||*Capital of Ninawa Governorate,
on the Tigris R. It is
the largest city in N Iraq and the third largest city in the country. The city is linked by rail with other major cities in the
country and, by way of a series of highways, to Turkey. Mosul is an
important trade and market center for the surrounding agricultural
region. Rich oil fields are also located in this area. While most of the urban population is Arab, the surrounding
region is inhabited largely by Kurds. Mosul was the chief city of N
Mesopotamia from the 8th to 13th cent., when it was devastated by
the Mongols. The city remained poor and shabby through its
occupation by the Persians (1508) and the Turks (1534-1918). Under
the British occupation and mandate (1918-32) it regained its stature as
the chief city of the region. Its possession by Iraq was disputed by
Turkey (1923-25) but was confirmed by the League of Nations (1926).
*In the city are the University of Mosul (1967) and a technical institute. Across the Tigris R. are ruins of Nineveh, capital of the ancient kingdom of Assyria. Is a center of Nestorian Christianity. (http://cbs.infoplease.com)(http://www.funkandwagnalls.com)
|Irbil||1m50s||11:48:20.9||*Also Arbil or Erbil (anc. Arbela), city, N Iraq, capital of Irbil
Governorate. One of the oldest continuously inhabited
cities in the world, it was founded before 2300 BC by the Sumerians
and called Urbillum. On the caravan route between Baghdad and
Mosul, Irbil became, and continues to be, an important commercial
center. The ancient name, Arbela, is often erroneously applied to the
battle fought in 331 BC at Gaugamela, a village W of Arbela, in which
Alexander the Great defeated Darius III, king of Persia. In the 1990s,
Irbil served as the capital of Iraqi Kurdistan and was the site of fierce
fighting between Kurdish factions.
*A Jewish community existed in Irbil continuously from the end of the Second Temple period when it was the capital of the Adiabene kingdom until the 1950s. At the end of the 12th century and during the first half of the 13th century, Irbil was the capital of an independent principality. During that period there was a large community there; it was considered as one of the most important in northern Babylonia. There was also an important community in Irbil under the Turkish rule. In 1951 all the Jews of the town emigrated to Israel, in the great exodus of Iraqi Jewry.
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