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Notes on Revelation


"Monarchs who claimed authority over more than one country wore more than one crown. The kings of Egypt were crowned with the psheni, or united crowns of Upper and Lower Egypt. When Ptolemy Philometer entered Antioch as a conqueror he wore a triple crown, two for Egypt, and the third for Asia.

"John saw him who was 'King of kings and Lord of lords,' and 'on his head were many crowns.' Thus, in a beautiful figure, the universal dominion of our blessed Lord is set forth."

(Manners & Customs of the Bible, James M. Freeman)

"It is a common saying with the Jews: 'that there is no eating and drinking in the world to come, but the righteous are "sitting," "and their crowns upon their heads."'"

"...the Jews say: when the holy blessed God ascends the glorious 'throne of judgment,' the whole family above tremble; and when they see the holy blessed God 'they take their crowns from off their heads'--and pray and seek mercy for Israel; and immediately he ascends the 'throne of mercy.'

And such like actions have been done by kings and princes to one another, in token of subjection. Thus Tigranes, King of Armenia, fell down at the feet of Pompey, and cast the crown from his head, which Pompey replaced; and having commanded him certain things, ordered him to enjoy his kingdoms: so Herod meeting Augustus Caesar at Rhode, when he entered the city took off his crown, and after a speech made to him, with which Caesar was pleased, he set it on him again."

(The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible)

Part of the humiliation process [testing] of the sota [adulteress] was to uncover her hair, which, for a married woman is normally forbidden to do in public. This was done to make the point: you failed to honor your status as a married woman by becoming an adulteress, or even by putting yourself in a position to be suspected of being an adulteress.

Part of being a nazir [Nazirite=separated, devoted] is to let one's hair grow without being cared for. Hair sits on top of the head like a crown, and the word "nazir" is often used as the word "crown." Therefore, hair itself is symbolic of that which glorifies the human being; in the case of the married woman by being constrained and covered, and in the case of the nazir, by growing without care. In each case, it alludes to devotion to the service of G-d, the real "crown" that "lifts" the spirit of the human being to a more elevated spiritual status.

(Pinchas Winston, Perceptions, Parashas Naso,

See also: Wormwood.

crowning [ L. corona, wreath]. Stage in delivery when fetal head presents at the vulva. Crowning occurs when the largest diameter of the infant's head comes through the vulvular opening.

(Taber's Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary)


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