Table of Contents

Notes on Revelation

Gog and Magog

....An interesting footnote to this possible scenario is found in the Christian newsletter, "Prophecy In The News", November, 1989, that "before the Russian revolution in 1917, Gorbachev's family name was spelled GOGRBACHEV". Remember God's prophecy in Ezekiel 38-39, that Russia would invade Israel in the last days and be destroyed at God's hand? Ezekeil 39:1 clearly states, "Behold, I am against you, O Gog, chief prince of Rosh, of Meshech, and Tubal". In Ezekiel 38:2, God states, "...set your face against Gog, of the land of Magog". Bible scholars have repeatedly shown that the "land of Magog" is modern Russia. Gog is their leader. Wouldn't it be just like God to cause the leader of Russia at the time of the invasion to have GOG as part of his name? We do, indeed, serve a mighty God!!

(Cutting Edge Radio, "Gorbachev--Spokesman for New World Order")

Jewish commentaries such as "Kesses HaSofer" identify "Magog" with the Russians and state that the word Mongol for the Siberian-Russian peoples is in fact derived from "Magog"...Arab writers confirm that in the Arabic language their name for the Great Wall of China is "the wall of Al Magog" because the Great Wall was built to keep out the invading armies from Magog (Russia).

(Armageddon, Appointment With Destiny, Grant R. Jeffrey)

From the infliction of the first of the plagues until the passing of the last, after which the Egyptians yielded all that Moses and Aaron demanded, there elapsed a whole year, for twelve months is the term set by God for the expiation of sins. The deluge lasted one year; Job suffered one year; sinners must endure hell tortures for one year, and the judgment upon Gog at the end of time will be executed for the length of one year.


(Regarding the ten plagues in Egypt) "...Behold, tomorrow when the sun passes this point,"--whereat Moses made a stroke upon the wall--"I will cause a very grievous hail to pour down, such as will be only once more, when I annihilate Gog with hail, fire, and brimstone."


Moses went a short distance out of the city from Pharaoh, and spread abroad his hands unto the Lord, for he did not desire to pray to God within, where there were many idols and images. At once the hail remained suspended in the air. Part of it dropped down while Joshua was engaged in battle with the Amorites, and the rest God will send down in His fury against Gog.


"If," continued Moses, "you will observe the Sabbath, God will give you three festivals in the months of Nisan, Siwan, and Tishri; and as a reward for the observance of the Sabbath, you will receive six gifts from God: the land of Israel, the future world, the new world, the sovereignty of the dynasty of David, the institution of the priests and the Levites; and, furthermore, as a reward for the observance of the Sabbath, you shall be freed from the three great afflictions: from the sufferings of the times of Gog and Magog, from the travails of the Messianic time, and from the day of the great Judgment."

(Legends of the Jews, Louis Ginzberg, Book 2 and 3)

The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah
by Alfred Edersheim

Appendix 9
List of Old Testament Passages Messianically Applied in Ancient Rabbinic Writings
[those that pertain to Gog and Magog]

In the Jerusalem Targum on Numbers 11:26 the prophecy of Eldad and Medad is supposed to have been with regard to the wars of the latter days against Jerusalem, and to the defeat of Gog and Magog by the Messiah.

Numbers 11:26
But there remained two of the men in the camp, the name of the one was Eldad, and the name of the other Medad: and the spirit rested upon them; and they were of them that were written, but went not out unto the tabernacle: and they prophesied in the camp.

Psalm 2, as might be expected, is treated as full of Messianic references. To begin with, Psalm 2:1 is applied to the wars of Gog and Magog in the Talmud, and also in the Midrash on Psalm 2. Similarly, verse 2 is applied to the Messiah in Abhod. Zarah, u.s., in the Midrash on Psalm 112:11; in Pirqe de R. Elieze. c. 28. In Yulkut, we have the following remarkable simile on the words, 'against God, and His Messiah,' likening them to a robber who stands defiantly behind the palace of the king, and says, If I shall find the son of the king, I shall lay hold on him, and crucify him, and kill him with a cruel death. But the Holy Spirit mocks at him, 'He that sitteth in the heavens shall laugh.' On the same verse the Midrash on Psalm 2 has a cruious conceit, intended to show that each who rose against God and His people thought he was wiser than he who had preceded him. If Cain had killed his brother while his father was alive, forgetful that there would be other sons, Esau proposed to wait till after his father's death. Pharaoh, again, blamed Esau for his folly in forgetting that in the meantime Jacob would have children, and hence proposed to kill all the male children, while Haman, ridiculing Pharaoh's folly in forgetting that there were daughters, set himself to destroy the whole people; and, in turn, Gog and Magog, ridiculing the shortsightedness of all, who had preceded them, in taking counsel against Israel so long as they had a Patron in heaven, resolved first to attack their heavenly Patron, and after that Israel. To which apply the words, 'against the Lord, and against His Anointed.'

Psalm 2
Why do the heathen rage, and the people imagine a vain thing? The kings of the earth set themselves, and the rulers take counsel together, against the LORD, and against his anointed, saying, Let us break their bands asunder, and cast away their cords from us. He that sitteth in the heavens shall laugh: the Lord shall have them in derision. Then shall he speak unto them in his wrath, and vex them in his sore displeasure. Yet have I set my king upon my holy hill of Zion. I will declare the decree: the LORD hath said unto me, Thou art my Son; this day have I begotten thee. Ask of me, and I shall give thee the heathen for thine inheritance, and the uttermost parts of the earth for thy possession. Thou shalt break them with a rod of iron; thou shalt dash them in pieces like a potter's vessel. Be wise now therefore, O ye kings: be instructed, ye judges of the earth. Serve the LORD with fear, and rejoice with trembling. Kiss the Son, lest he be angry, and ye perish from the way, when his wrath is kindled but a little. Blessed are all they that put their trust in him.

Psalm 16:5 is discussed in Ber. R. 88, in connection with the cup which Pharaoh's butler saw in his dream. From this the Midrash proceeds to speak of the four cups appointed for the Passover night, and to explain their meaning in various manners, among others, contrasting the four cups of fury, which God would make the nations drink, with the four cups of salvation which He would give Israel in the latter days, viz. Psa 16:5; Psa 116:13; Psa 23:5. The expression, Psa 116:13, rendered in our AV 'the cup of salvation,' is in the original, 'the cup of salvation'--and is explained as implying one for the days of the Messiah, and the other for the days of Gog.

Psalm 16:5
The LORD is the portion of mine inheritance and of my cup: thou maintainest my lot.

Psalm 116:13
I will take the cup of salvation, and call upon the name of the LORD.

Psalm 23:5
Thou preparest a table before me in the presence of mine enemies: thou anointest my head with oil; my cup runneth over.

1. Now they were the grandchildren of Noah, in honor of whom names were imposed on the nations by those that first seized upon them. Japhet, the son of Noah, had seven sons: they inhabited so, that, beginning at the mountains Taurus and Amanus, they proceeded along Asia, as far as the river Tansis, and along Europe to Cadiz; and settling themselves on the lands which they light upon, which none had inhabited before, they called the nations by their own names. For Gomer founded those whom the Greeks now call Galatians, [Galls,] but were then called Gomerites. Magog founded those that from him were named Magogites, but who are by the Greeks called Scythians.

(Antiquities of the Jews, Josephus)


Scythia: the country of the ancient Scythians comprising parts of Europe & Asia now in USSR in regions N & NE of Black sea & E of Aral sea.

(Webster's Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary)


April 3, 1999

Russia Readies Forces - Confers With China, Iran

MOSCOW (CP) -- Russia confirmed today it will send a warship to the Mediterranean in response to NATO air strikes against Yugoslavia and that others are on standby after Moscow's diplomatic efforts failed to end the Kosovo crisis. In another development, Foreign Minister Igor Ivanov said Russia had "reliable information" that Washington is considering a plan to partition Kosovo.

Ivanov told a news conference such a plan would involve deployment of a land force, and suggested NATO was already preparing for such a ground operation.

"According to reliable information we have obtained, Washington is considering in practical terms separating Kosovo from Yugoslavia or splitting the province," Ivanov said.

Meanwhile, Russian Defence Minister Igor Sergeyev said one warship from the Black Sea fleet "is getting ready to sail through the Bosporus to monitor NATO actions to enhance Russia's security."

It was not clear if the ship was already en route.

"Other ships are also getting ready to go, but as of now no decision has been made to send them," he told a news conference.

However, Russia has said repeatedly that its military will not become directly involved in the conflict in Yugoslavia.

And NATO said today that it expected Russia to stick to what it said.

"We are counting on President (Boris) Yeltsin to keep to those words," NATO spokesman Jamie Shea said in Brussels, Belgium.

Sergeyev's statement came after Russian news agencies reported a squadron of seven ships, including missile frigates and anti-submarine frigates from the Black Sea Fleet, would be sent to the Mediterranean in early April.

The appearance of a Russian naval squadron in the Mediterranean could cause concern among NATO commanders. U.S. and allied warships are deployed in the region and have launched cruise missiles from the sea.

Yeltsin and other officials have strongly condemned the NATO action but ruled out any Russian military intervention. While any deployment of warships would likely be symbolic, it would be a step up in the Russian response.

With its military and economy in shambles, western observers say Russia lacks the means to mount a credible military response to support its Yugoslav ally.

But regional governor Alexander Lebed, a presidential hopeful and former general, called today for sending military aid to Yugoslavia in some of his strongest statements yet on the NATO bombing.

"We must declare that we will render military and technical aid to Yugoslavia with the aim of supporting the civilian population," said Lebed, adding that Russia should declare Yugoslavia a "zone of strategic interest."

Communist leader Gennady Zyuganov said he supported sending warships to the Mediterranean. "Either we stop these overexcited war-mongering politicians or the war will spread," he said.

The Russian Defence Ministry said today it is discussing the NATO attacks with its counterparts in China, India and Iran, but gave no details.

Prime Minister Yevgeny Primakov returned to Moscow today after his diplomatic mission to Yugoslavia failed to produce a breakthrough. Moscow had hoped to resume international talks on ending the Kosovo dispute.

Primakov said he believed Yugoslav President Slobodan Milosevic had signalled he was ready to start talks on a peaceful solution.

In the Russian parliament today, a debate on calls to end air strikes turned violent when communist and liberal lawmakers ended up in a fistfight.

The scuffle started after Communists and other hardliners criticized an earlier failed peacemaking mission to Belgrade this week by a group of Russian liberals. It was separate from Primakov's mission.

Opposition to the air strikes also goes beyond the government. A leftist group took responsibility for attacking the U.S. Embassy in Moscow and said it was the start of a campaign against western targets to protest NATO's air assaults, according to news reports today.

The previously unknown group named Scythian sent letters to Russian newspapers saying it carried out the attack in which gunmen with grenade launchers and a rifle opened fire on the embassy. No one was hurt and the gunmen escaped.

Scythian, named after a tribe of warlike nomads who roamed Russia 2,000 years ago, said it is an ultra-left organization that was formed to honor a deceased Russian Orthodox priest who supported the Communist Party.

Regarding the material of these early chronicles, however, whose contents were already of great age by the time Ernin copied them down, Keating writes:

'We will set down here the branching off of the races of Magog, according to the Book of Invasions (of Ireland), which was called the Gin of Drom Snechta...'

There later follows a succession of strange and ancient names, of which the table of descent that opens this chapter is a somewhat simplified extract. The important thing for us to notice in this table of descent, though, is the unequivocal statement that the decidedly pagan Irish traced their origins back to the biblical patriarch, Magog, the son of Japheth. This is in direct contrast to the claims of the Britons and other European nations, whose genealogies were traced back to Javan, another son of Japheth. Now, Magog, as we shall see in Appendix 3, was considered, with Ashchenaz, the father of the Scythian peoples, and the early Irish chroniclers were most emphatic in their insistence that the Irish were of Scythian stock. And there is good etymological evidence for this. The Irish were long referred to as Scots even before some of them migrated to the country that today bears their name, and as Brewer tells us:

'Scot (is) the same as Scythian in etymology; the root of both is Sct. The Greeks had no c, and would change t into th making the root skth, and by adding a phonetic vowel we get Skuthai (Scythians), and Skodiai (Skoths). The Welsh disliked s at the beginning of a word, and would change it to ys; they would also change c or k to g, and th to d; whence the Welsh root would be Ysgd, and Skuth or Skoth would become ysgod. Once more, the Saxons would cut off the Welsh y, and change the g back again to c, and the d to t, converting the Ysgod to Scot.'

It would be no strange thing to find Scythian peoples as far west as Ireland. After all, the land in Asia Minor known of old as Galatia, was populated by a migrating colony of Gallic Celts from whom the country got its name. St Paul wrote his famous epistle to their descendants. Many other examples from history are known of nations seemingly popping up in places where one would normally not expect to find them, so it requires no great stretch of the imagination to accept what the early Irish chroniclers so often insisted upon, namely their descent from the Scythian races.


So it is clear that at the very least, the early Irish chroniclers were passing on an account, albeit garbled in places, of authentic historical events and personages, and of the equally historic descent of their own race from Phoenician and Scythian stock. And on the subject of that descent, Cusack adds yet again to our store of knowledge:

'As the Milesians were the last of the ancient colonists ... only their genealogies, with a few exceptions, have been preserved. The genealogical tree begins, therefore, with the brothers Eber and Eremon, the two surviving leaders of the expedition, whose ancestors are traced back to Magog, the son of Japhet. The great southern chieftains, such as the MacCarthys and O'Briens, claim descent from Eber; the northern families of O'Connor, O'Donnell, and O'Neill, claim Eremon as their head. There are also other families claiming descent from Emer, the son of Ir, brother to Eber and Eremon; as also from their cousin Lugaidh, the son of Ith. From these four sources the principle Celtic families of Ireland have sprung...'


Geoffrey's Gogmagog appears to be a corruption of the name Gawr Madoc, the giant or great warrior Madog. Of these 'giants', we read, ...though their stature is exaggerated, yet it will be remembered that the stature of the ancient Britons was thought gigantic by Romans.' Pope. p. 164.


Excerpts from Appendix 3:

6. Magog: His immediate descendants were known as the Magogites, being later known to the Greeks as the Scythians, according to the testimony of Josephus. However, given the subsequent history of the peoples of Ashchenaz (see 3), who are far more certainly identified as the later Scythians (Gk. Skythai, and Assyr. Askuza), it is more likely that the early Magogites were assimilated into the peoples of Ashchenaz, thus making up merely a part of the Scythian hordes. The early Irish Celts traced their own lineage from Japheth through the line of Magog (see chapter 9 and Map 1). (Refs: 1DB 3:226. NBD 'Gog and Magog' 480-1 JA P 1:26)

3. Ashchenaz: The descendants of Ashchenaz first settled in what is today Armenia, although in later Jewish writings he was associated (with his father Gomer) with the Germanic races. Hence, Germanic Jews are still known as Ashkenazim. More immediately, the Assyrians tell us in their inscriptions of the Askuza, a tribe who allied themselves with the Mannai in a revolt of the 7th century BC, an event that is also mentioned in the Old Testament (Jeremiah 51:27). Indeed, it is in this statement that Jeremiah incidentally confirms the identity of the Ashkenazim with the Askuza. This name, the Askuza of the Assyrian records, later became the Skythai (Scythians) of Herodotus. Other early sources confirm their place of settlement to be the area later known as Pontus and Bythinia, where the peoples of Ashchenaz gave their name to the lake and harbour of Ascanius, and to the land of Ascania. Josephus tells us that they were subsequently known to the Greeks as the Rheginians (see Map 1). (Refs: 1DB 1:254. NBD 96. JA P 1:26)

(After the Flood, Bill Cooper)

Pliny (Lib. v. cap. 23) as quoted in "A Commentary of the New Testament from the Talmud and Hebraica" by John Lightfoot states:

"Coelosyria habet Apamiam Marsya amne divisam. A Nazerinorum tetrarchia Bambycen, quae alio nomine 'Hierapolis' vocatur, Syris vero 'Magog.'"

Which is roughly translated as:

"Assyria was divided into two sections: Apania and Marsya. Nazareth was in the tetrarchy of Bambycen, also known as 'Hieropolis,' while Syria was known as 'Magog.'"

[tetrarchy - government by four persons ruling jointly.

Pliny - I'm not sure which one this is, either the Elder who lived around AD 23-79 or the Younger who lived around AD 61-113.]

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