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Notes on Revelation


"And unto the angel of the church of the Laodiceans write; These things saith the Amen, the faithful and true witness, the beginning of the creation of God; I know thy works, that thou art neither cold nor hot: I would thou wert cold or hot. So then because thou art lukewarm, and neither cold nor hot, I will spue thee out of my mouth. Because thou sayest, I am rich, and increased with goods, and have need of nothing; and knowest not that thou art wretched, and miserable, and poor, and blind, and naked: I counsel thee to buy of me gold tried in the fire, that thou mayest be rich; and white raiment, that thou mayest be clothed, and that the shame of thy nakedness do not appear; and anoint thine eyes with eyesalve, that thou mayest see. As many as I love, I rebuke and chasten: be zealous therefore, and repent. Behold I stand at the door, and knock: if any man hear my voice, and open the door, I will come in to him, and will sup with him, and he with me. To him that overcometh will I grant to sit with me in my throne, even as I also overcame, and am set down with my Father in his throne. He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches."--Revelation 3:14-22

"Laodicea...[was a] wealthy and self-sufficient city that had good income from the wool industry...In Laodicea there was at that time a treatment for eye soreness which was common in the Middle East."

(Prophecy Knowledge Handbook, John Walvoord)

"Laodicea was an extremely wealthy banking center...It had a medical school which was noted for a healing eye ointment.

"The city was very pleasure-conscious, with a huge race track and three lavish theaters, one of which was half again as large as a football field."

(There's A New World Coming, Hal Lindsey)

"Laodicea...was planted in the lower Lycus glen, Colossae being situated in the upper. The Lycus glen was the most frequented path of trade from the interior of the country to the west, and the great road passesd right through Laodicea. The city was nearly square, and strongly fortified, but dependent for its water supply on an acqueduct 6 miles long. It played a comparatively small part in the dissemination of Greek culture. Its prosperity advanced greatly under the Romans. It was an important manufacturing centre, for instance, for a soft glossy black wool, which was made into garments of various kinds (cf. Rev 3:18). In connexion with the temple of the Phrygian god Men Karou (13 miles west of Laodicea), there grew up a celebrated school of medicine. Its most famous medicines were an ointment made from spice nard, which strengthened the ears, and Phrygian powder, obtained by crushing Phrygian stone, which was used for eyes (Rev 3:18). There were many Jewish inhabitants of Laodicea, and the population as a whole was of very mixed race. There is a want of individuality about the life of this city, which has been called 'the city of compromise.'"

(Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible)

"In the district of Hierapolis were hot mineral springs, whose water was transported to Laodicea in conduits. By the time it reached the city, it was no longer hot. Cold water was piped to Laodicea from Colossae, and it, too, would be lukewarm by the time it arrived."

(Escape the Coming Night)

See "The Two Babylons" with regards to references throughout to the "Father of the gods," the "all-seeing Janus," and in particular "Shing Moo and Ma Tsoopo of China" regarding "goddess of the eye."

See the book The Letters to the Seven Churches of Asia by W. M. Ramsay.

See also Seven Churches.


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