The Targums of
Onkelos and Jonathan Ben Uzziel
on the Pentateuch;
with the fragments of the
Jerusalem Targum
from the Chaldee

J. W. Etheridge, MA


"This provision, (the Paraphrase,) made by men, was directed by the Ruler of Providence, in His love for the remnant of His people, to afford us stay and staff in His Torah, His laws and precepts, till the time of the Redemption shall arrive, when He will raise from the dust the fallen tabernacle of David, and say to the daughter of Zion, Awake, arise." Mendelssohn


of Hieratic* and Legal Terms
in the Pentateuch;
on the best Authorities, Christian and Rabbinical

[* Hieratic = pertaining to priests or the priesthood; sacerdotal; priestly.]


The biblical title of the Mosaic writings most usually employed is Ha Torah, "the Law"; from yarah, "to teach," or "direct":—"the Law of the Lord," to assert its true origin and authority; and "the Law of Moses," to denote the mediatorial agency by which it was given to mankind. The common conventional title, "the Pentateuch," is a combination of the Greek words, teuchos, "a volume," and pente, "five"; "the Five-fold Book"; which corresponds with the Rabbinical appellation of Chamishah Chumeshe hattorah, "the Five Fifths of the Law." Whether this division was made by the author, or the entire work was composed by him in one continuous treatise, cannot be fully ascertained. The five books, as we now classify them, are not distinguished in the original Hebrew by any other specific titles than the initial words. Thus Genesis, from its first word, is called Bereshith, "In the beginning"; Exodus, Ve Elleh Shemoth, "These are the names"; Leviticus, Vaiyikra, "And he called"; Numbers, Vai dabber, "And he spoke," with the current title of Bemidbar, "In the wilderness"; while Deuteronomy takes its name from the first two words, Elleh Haddebarim, "These are the words," or Sepher Debarim, "the Book of the Words."

The general contents of the Pentateuch are,—1. Historical; 2. Legislative. In Genesis the Historical details are given in successive sections called Toledoth, Gr. ai geneseis, histories, especially of the origin of persons or things, from yalad, "to create," or "bring forth." Thus we have the toledoth of the heavens and the earth, from the first verse of the first chapter of Genesis, to the sixth verse of the second chapter. These are followed by the toledoth of Adam, chapter 5:1; of Noah, 6:9; of the first nations, 10, and the first empire, 11: after which come the toledoth of Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and Joseph, to the end. In the following books the history, no longer biographical, takes a broader character, and describes the development of the Hebrew nation as such, from the Exodus to the death of Moses. The greater portion of the Pentateuch, however, from the middle of the second to the end of the fifth book, is a digest of the Laws of the Jewish Dispensation, ethical, ritualistic, and secular. The last book condenses both the history and the legislation, by a summary which culminates in a marvellous grandeur of prophecy, whose words of warning and benedictions of grace become, for all time, a Divinely spoken attestation to the Torah as a Revelation from God.

This is all that needs to be said here on the structure of the work at large; my design in these introductory pages being restricted to the simple object expressed at the head,—a brief explication of the terminology of the Pentateuch, and not a hermeneutic study of its several parts, for which I refer the student to the learned volumes of Graves and Macdonald, Baehr and Fairbairn, Havernick, Hengstenberg, and the commentators in general. Nor have I entered even on the question of the authenticity of the works of the Hebrew legislator, about which we have had within the last three years many able treatises, contributing to set that most important truth upon a foundation not more sure than it was before, but more evidently sure to us. The genuineness of the Mosaic writings, the credibility of their contents, and the Divine inspiration which is their source, are now more firmly believed in than ever; a result which all who reverence the Bible as the Word of God must rejoice in, however they may deplore the painful circumstances which gave occasion to the controversy, or the wavering of too many, shaken by scepticism, through the influence of one-sided objections, who would have stood firm had they sought and found the support which always comes to the sincere and impartial inquirer with the full knowledge of the truth. In the arrangement of these terms and phrases of the Pentateuch, to avoid the dryness of a mere alphabetic vocabulary, I have grouped them under the various subjects to which they relate, with a slight tissue of connecting remarks, which may serve at once to render them a little more readable, and conduce to their elucidation.


  1. The Divine Names
    1. Elohim
    2. Jehovah
    3. Eheyeh asher Eheyeh
    4. El Shaddai
    5. Adonai
    6. Helyon
  2. Notices of the Messiah in the Pentateuch
  3. Names of Heathen Gods in the Pentateuch
  4. The Sacred Place
    1. The Holy Tabernacle
    2. General Names for the Tabernacle
    3. Terms Relating to the Form of the Tabernacle
      1. The Court
      2. The Tabernacle
      3. The Interior
    4. Apparatus of the Tabernacle
      1. In the Larger Space of the Court
        1. The Altar of the Burnt Sacrifice
        2. The Laver
      2. Within the Holy Place
        1. The Candelabrum
        2. The Table
        3. The Altar of Incense
      3. Beyond the Veil
        1. The Ark
        2. The Mercy-Seat
        3. The Cherubim
        4. The Glory of the Lord
  5. Sacred Persons
    1. Priesthood
    2. Duties
      1. In the Court
      2. In the Holy Place
      3. Various Duties
    3. High Priest
      1. Consecration of
      2. Vestments of
        1. The Robe of Azure
        2. The Ephod
        3. The Breastplate
        4. The Turban
        5. The Urim and Thummim
  6. Sacred Things
    1. Sacrifices
      1. Expiatory
      2. Eucharistic
        1. Peace Offerings
        2. Meal Offerings
        3. Firstfruits
  7. Holy Seasons
    1. Sabbatical
      1. Sabbath
      2. Feast of Trumpets
      3. Sabbatical Year
      4. Jubilee Year
    2. Commemorative Festivals
      1. Passover
      2. Pentecost
      3. Feast of Tabernacles
    3. Fast of Day of Atonement
  8. Miscellaneous Terms Relating to the Civil and Religious Life of the Hebrew People



The holy Pentateuch opens with a sentence which combines the majesty and simplicity of a Divine oracle: "In the beginning Elohim created the heavens and the earth"; a sentence whose few but sublime words throw the first beam of light on the otherwise inscrutable mystery of existence, and lead us up to the fountain and cause of created being, in God, its Author and End.

I. The name Elohim is the plural form of El or Eloha, the ground-form of which some think they find in the Hebrew root alah, "to swear," i. q., a God in covenant: some, that it lies in the cognate Arabic root alaha, "to worship," or "adore," from which are formed alike the Arabian name of Allah and the Hebrew Eloha, the Being who alone is adorable: but others, deriving it from the abstract noun El, or Ul, consider Elohim to be an appellation of the Omnipotent; the name of a Being whose will concentrates all power in itself. El Elohim in their view is equivalent to ho Theos ischuros, or Pantokrator, "the Almighty God."

Yet to Him who is of necessity One, is here given, and by His own dictate, a plural appellation. This phenomenon, which occurs in a multitude of places in the Old Testament, is explained as being a mere adaptation to the usual style of royalty;—pluralis majestatis, vel excellentiae. According to this view it does not indicate a plurality of Persons in the Deity, but the multiform and all-comprising perfection of the One God; the index of physical and moral majesty in their highest expression. When, therefore, we read such words as, "Elohim said, Let us make man in Our Image" (Gen 1:26) or, "Behold, the man is become as one of Us" (Gen 3:22) the formula is to be understood after the manner in which we read the plural in a proclamation of one of the kings of the earth. But the insufficiency of this explanation is apparent in the fact, that Elohim is used not only with plural pronouns in the first person, as in the texts quoted, but with plural adjectives, (Elohim kerobim, "near Gods," Deut 4:7; chayim, "living Gods," Jer 10:10; kedoshim, "holy Gods," Joshua 24:19) and in concord with plural verbs in the third person. (Gen 20:13: Hithu Elohim othi, "The Gods caused me to wander." Gen 35:7: Niglu elaif ha-Elohim, "The Gods were revealed to him." See also Gen 31:53.)* When we read in some royal proclamation such words as, "We have decreed," the form of the pronoun being usual on the lips of a king makes no hindrance to our perception that the words are those of an individual; but when we read, "The kings have decreed," we are obliged, by the common sense of language, to understand more kings than one. But such is the combination of the nominative and the verb in the texts just cited. The Bible, did it contain no other intimation on the mystery of the Triune Nature, by combining this plural name of the Deity with a singular verb, as in Genesis 1:1, or with another Divine name in the singular, as "Jehovah Elohim," or El Elohim, would not fail to suggest the conception of a nature in which simplicity or unity of essence is characterized by a plurality of Persons.

* We could refer to the plural form in Ecclesiastes 12:1: "Remember thy Creators": but the reading there is precarious, as many good MSS. have the singular.
The modern Jewish theologians, in their wish to keep at the greatest distance from the peculiar doctrines of Christianity, have diverged in some instances, and this among them, from the belief of their ancient predecessors. The Jewish people, at the Christian epoch, and for a long time after it, though steadfast as any of their descendants in the doctrine of the Divine unity, were nevertheless habituated to the idea of a personal plurality in Him whose name is Elohim. Considering the four Christian Gospels merely as authentic contemporary history, we have in them important documentary evidence of the state of public opinion and religious belief among that people eighteen hundred years ago. In reading the varions discourses and colloquies which have a record on those pages, can we suppose that when Jesus Christ told the people of the willingness of "the Father" to give "the Holy Spirit" to those who ask Him, He used terms which were not already familiar to them? So when He spoke with Nicodemus of "the Spirit " as the Regenerator, and of God so loving the world as to give His only begotten Son for its redemption, or when the Baptist discoursed of the love which the Father hath for the Son, did these sacred appellations fall for the first time upon their ears? In truth the formula Ab, Ben, ve Ruach ha Kadosh, "Father, Son, and Holy Spirit," was theirs before it was ours. It developed the sense of what they read in their Scriptures of One who is the Father (Mal 2:10); of One who is the Son (Pro 30:4); and of One who is the Spirit of Holiness (Psa 51:12, 139:7; Isa 48:16). They had a term which corresponds to our technical word "Trinity," namely, Shilosh, and in Aramaic Talithutho; and in some of their earliest post-biblical literature the doctrine intimated by that term has a categorical expression as distinct as any that are found in the creeds of the church.*
* I may refer, for examples, to the passages in the Zohar, where the Shema, or confession of the Divine Unity (Deut 6:4), is explained upon Trinitarian principles. "Hear, Israel: Jehovah our God is one Jehovah. By the first name in this sentence, Jehovah, is signified God the Father, the Head of all things. By the next words, our God, is signified God the Son, the fountain of all knowledge; and by the second Jehovah is signified God the Holy Ghost, proceeding of them both. To all which is added the word One, to signify that these three are Indivisible. But this mystery shall not be revealed until the coming of Messiah." So the Trisagion, or angels' song, in Isaiah 6 is expounded in the same way. "Holy, holy, holy Lord God of Sabaoth. Isaiah, by repeating Holy three times, does as much as if he had said, Holy Father, Holy Son, and Holy Spirit; which three Holies do make but one only Lord God of Sabaoth." The sacred dogma itself is thus laid down: "Come and see the mystery. There are three degrees (in Elohim); and each degree is by itself [balchudi] ; nevertheless [aph albag] all are one; all united in unity, and this inseparable from that." (Zohar, cap. 3. Compare the Jezirah, i. 35.) The Zohar gives a curious, but of course defective, illustration from the human voice, which is one thing, though formed by the union of three elements,—warmth, vapour, and air. The passage, which contains some good dogmatic definitions, may be found on p. 13 of the Sulzbach edition, and p. 43 of that of Amsterdam.

I. Divine Titles. (Glossary)
In addition to the names of the Deity found in the Holy Scriptures, the ancient Jewish theologians employed several others, as descriptive epithets of the Divine perfections; such as, 1. Matsui Rishon, "the Primary Being." 2. Ha-Shem, "the Name"; a pronounceable alternative for Jehovah. 3. Yechido, "the Only One." 4. Chai Haolamim, "the Ever-Living One." 5. Hakkadosh, "the Holy One"; to which is usually added, Baruch Hu, "Blessed is He." 6. Zaddiko, "the Righteous One." 7. Makom, literally "Place"; an epithet used to denote the Ubiquity of God. The place or space occupied by a creature is limited to the dimensions of its own contracted being: the Place of the Creator is infinitude. 8. Geburah, "Power," or "Omnipotence." 9. Ha-Bore, "the Creator." 10. Mi sheamar vehayah ha olam, "Who spake, and the world was." 11. Adon kol Haarets, "The Supporter of the whole earth." 12. Malko shel olam, "King of the world." 13. Melek malkey hammelakim, "the King of the kings of kings." 14. Melek shehashalom shelo, "the King of Peace"; or, "the King with whom there is peace." 15. Ha El hakkabod vehannorah, "the glorious and awful God." 16. Rachamana, "the Merciful." 17. Mazega de alma, "the Distributor of good things (lit., wine) to the world." 18. Baal harachamim, "the Lord of Mercies." 19. Abinu shebbashamayim, "our Father who is in the heavens." 20. Ha-Shamayim, "Heaven."]

II. Jehovah, יהוה In this holy and awful Name, as the revealed appellation of the Self-Existing, All-Sufficient, and Unchangeable Being, we possess the germ and principle of all true theology. The Hebrew divines call it, by emphasis, Ha Shem, the Name; with the reverential epithets of Shema Rabba, "the Great Name"; Shem shel arba othioth, "the Name of Four Letters" (the Greek Tetragramma); Shem ha-etsem, "the very Name"; Shem hammeyochad, "the one, singular, or peculiar Name"; and Shem hammephorash, "the Name of Manifestation," as making the Divine Nature known; (from pharash, "to explain") or, in the meaning which that verb bears in Aramaic of being separate or distinguished,—"the Name which is especially sacred."

The reverence and godly fear with which this Divine title is regarded, have among the Jews for two thousand years made it a name for the thought, rather than the tongue; and the silence of so many ages, in the disuse of it as a vocable, has been followed by the absolute loss of its true pronunciation. The averseness to the use of the Name by the voice was at an early period strengthened by the view taken of the third commandment, as not only forbidding perjury and blasphemy, but also the light and indiscriminating pronunciation of the Holy Name in common conversation; and by conclusions from the case in Leviticus 24:11-16, where the sin of the man was thought to have consisted not only in his blaspheming the Name, but in pronouncing it. See the Targums on the place.

Leviticus 24:11-16 JPS — 11 And the son of the Israelitish woman blasphemed the Name, and cursed; and they brought him unto Moses. And his mother's name was Shelomith, the daughter of Dibri, of the tribe of Dan. 12 And they put him in ward, that it might be declared unto them at the mouth of the LORD. 13 And the LORD spoke unto Moses, saying: 14 'Bring forth him that hath cursed without the camp; and let all that heard him lay their hands upon his head, and let all the congregation stone him. 15 And thou shalt speak unto the children of Israel, saying: Whosoever curseth his God shall bear his sin. 16 And he that blasphemeth the name of the LORD, he shall surely be put to death; all the congregation shall certainly stone him; as well the stranger, as the home-born, when he blasphemeth the Name, shall be put to death.

Targum — And the son of a woman, a daughter of Israel, but he was the son of a Mizraite man, went out among the children of Israel; and the son of the Israelite woman, and a man, a son of Israel, had contention in the camp. And the son of the woman the daughter of Israel gave expression to the Name, and execrated.* And they brought him unto Mosheh. And the name of his mother was Shelomith, the daughter of Dibree, of the tribe of Dan. And they bound him in the house of confinement, until it should be explained to them by the decree of the Word of the Lord. And the Lord spake with Mosheh, saying: Bring forth him who hath imprecated without the camp, and let all who heard lay their hands upon his head, and let all the congregation stone him. And speak thou with the sons of Israel, saying: Whatever man imprecateth before his God shall bear his guilt, and he who (so) expresseth the Name of the Lord, dying shall die, and all the congregation shall stone him, as well the stranger as the native born; when he hath made (blasphemous) expression of the Name, he shall be put to death.

* execrate = To declare to be hateful or abhorrent; denounce. To feel loathing for; abhor. Archaic. To invoke a curse on
The influence of this feeling showed itself in the habit of refraining from the common use of the Name, except in worship, and in pious salutations (Berakoth, iii. 5); and then of restricting the utterance of it to the lips of the priest in the public services of religion. Thus, in pronouncing the trinal blessing, (Num 6) the priest "might make utterance of the Name according to its writing." (Shem hammephorash ki-kethabo—Talmud, Sotah, vii. 6; Tamid, vii. 2.) When the high priest pronounced it in the service of the day of Atonement, the people fell prostrate on the ground. (Mishna, Yoma, vi. 2.) So that hitherto the use of it was not absolutely forbidden, but the abuse only. But the exaggeration of the sentiment led at last to the final cessation of the use itself. After the time of the high priest Shemeon Hazaddik, it ceased to be spoken. It was heard in the temple for the last time from his mouth. Henceforward whoever should attempt to pronounce it was to have no part in the world to come. (Sanhedrin, x. 1.) The consequence has been an utter oblivion of the orthoepy of the Name, not only in its oral sound, but in its grammatical vocalization; a defect which has caused not a little embarrassment as to the precise composition and import of the appellation. The four antique consonants remain, like an immutable symbol of the Divine Being; but the manner in which they are vocalized, from the peculiar nature of the Hebrew language, will greatly modify the signification. And perhaps no name has been subjected to so many experiments for some past time as the sacred one before us, for which the following modes of expression have been severally contended for:—YeHeVeH, YeHVeH, YaHVeH, YaHaVaH, YaHaVeH, YeHoVaH. After these we cease to wonder at the diversities in the Greek and other ethnic forms of the name; as Aia, Iao, Iabe, Ieuo, Dios, Jovis, and Jova.

But amid all these variations as to the mode in which it should be syllabled, the real meaning of the name is not seriously obscured. The basis of it stands sure, in the Hebrew verb hayah, "to be"; a verb of which there are two forms, hayah and havah, the latter being the more ancient. It is that which appears in the name Jehovah; a circumstance which should be taken into account in examining one of the questions of the day on the antiquity of the name.

Now, of the preterite hayah or havah, "He was," the third person future, masculine, is Yihyeh, or Yihveh, "He will be"; a form of the verb which certainly gives that of the title YHVH. In this point of view, as predicating futurity of existence, it is held to express, in the third person, "He will be"; that which the Almighty affirmed of Himself (Exo 3:14) in the first person, Ehyeh, "I will be." But the futurity of existence here proclaimed is not that of one who is only to be hereafter; it is the permanent existence of a Being who now Is, and who ever has Been. For the form Yihveh is held to be equivalent with Ye-havah, the prefix of the future combined with the preterite root, to indicate the permanence of One who has ever existed. He who Was and Is, is He who Will Be. The punctuation of the Name as Yehovah is an attempt to express the fulness of this truth, in aduniting the three elements of the verb "to Be." Thus Yehe, "He will be"' Hoveh, "He is"; Havah, "He was." So in the Apocalypse the Deity is named as ho en, kai ho on, kai ho erchomenos (Rev 4:8), "He who was, and who is, and who is to come," or "to be, still"; in Hebrew, Hu haveh, hu hoveh, vehu yehveh. Hence the name Yehovah has always been considered as the peculiar and incommunicable title of the Being who is self-existent, all-sufficient, and unchangeable. In the Tetragramma there is a concentration of all the Divine attributes; for He who is the self-existent must be self-sufficient, and therefore infinitely blessed, benevolent, and just; omniscient, because spiritual in His nature, and everywhere present, as existing absolutely; boundless in power as in presence; immutable, inhabiting eternity.

The Masorites punctuated the name Jehovah with the vowels of Adonai. But when the two titles, Jehovah and Adonai, occur in the Bible in apposition, the former is pointed with the vowels of Elohim.

The authors of the Septuagint Version, under the influence of the Palestinian feeling with regard to the Holy Name, do not give it a literal expression, but render it by ho Kurios, "the Lord"; and Yehovah Elohim by Kurios ho Theos. The old Syriac Version for Yehovah employs the title Morio, "the Lord." The Syrians considered this name with its four letters M.R.I.A. to correspond with the Hebrew Tetragram, יהוה; and the letters themselves as the initials of words symbolical of the Divine Nature; the first, m, standing for morutho, "dominion"; the second, r, for rabutho, "majesty," or "greatness"; the third and fourth, i, a, for aithutho, "essential being." Morio, "The Lord," is distinguished from the common form of Mar, "a lord," and is never used but as an appellation of the Deity. In the Chaldee Targums Yehovah is always expressed by Yeya.

III. Eheyeh asher Eheyeh. Exodus 3:14: "And God said to Moses, I AM THAT I AM. Thus shalt thou say to the children of Israel, I AM hath sent me to you." 15: "And God said yet to Moses, Thus shalt thou say to the children of Israel, Jehovah the God of your Fathers hath sent me to you. This is My Name for ever, and this is My Memorial for all generations." It will be seen that Jehovah in the fifteenth verse is used synonymously with Eheyeh asher Eheyeh in the fourteenth; and that in the latter title is to be found the Divine exposition of the former one. Grammatically Eheyeh is the first person singular future of hayah, "he was,"—"I Will Be": but some good Hebrew divines believe that the word, as here used, consists of the preterite hayah, "he was," with the first person prefix א, the initial and representative of the pronoun Anochi, I—א-היה E-heyeh; as if He had said, "I Am He who hath been"; or, "I, who have been, Am He who Is." This, then, like the Tetragramma, is an incommunicable Name of the Unchangeable because Self-Existent One; or, as Maimonides interprets the Divine words, "the Being who is Being, that is, a Being who must of necessity Be; for that which exists of necessity must have existed evermore." And to the same effect the exposition given by the metaphysical theologian Rabbi Joseph Albo: "I Am the Cause of My own Being, and the First Cause of all other: for all other being is, not because it is, but because I AM."

The Almighty made here this announcement of His unchangeableness, to give greater stress to His now revealed purpose to deliver Israel from bondage, and to redeem them into the liberty of His people. "I Am for ever; and therefore am able to fulfil My promises." So, in the sixth chapter of Exodus, the Name of the Immutable Jehovah, though known already in an imperfect manner by the patriarchs, is now to be known for the first time as that of Israel's COVENANT GOD, whose purposes, though they require the lapse of ages and millenniums for their full unfoldment, are the purposes of One with whom a thousand years are as a day.

The Septuagint translates Eheyeh by, Ego eimi ho on, "I am the Existent." Onkelos leaves the Hebrew untranslated; but the Palestinian Targum attempts a paraphrase: "He who spake, and the world was; who spake, and all things were. And He said, This shalt thou say to the sons of Israel, I Am He who Is, and who Will Be, hath sent me unto you." The Jerusalem Targum has,—"And the Word of the Lord said to Mosheh, He who spake to the world, Be, and it was; and who will speak to it, Be, and it will be. And He said, Thus shalt thou speak to the sons of Israel, Eheyeh hath sent me unto you."

IV. El Shaddai. (Gen 17:1.) There are two leading opinions on the ground and meaning of this name. One, that it is derived from the noun dai, "plenitude" or "abundance," and, combined with the personal prefix sh (the abbreviation of asher, "who"), denotes the all-sufficiency of God, El sh'dai. But the more generally received derivation makes it come from shad, "power," "force," especially that which is overwhelming (shadad), irresistible, like the hurricane, or the rising tide of the ocean. El Shaddai is "the Almighty God," "the Omnipotent." Shaddai is the pluralis majestatis; and in most of the texts in which it occurs is no doubt rightly rendered by "the Almighty." The Septuagint translates it sometimes by Theos (Gen 49:25); sometimes by ho Ikanos, "the Sufficient" (Ruth 1:20,21); but more commonly by Pantokrator, "the Almighty." Onkelos retains the Hebrew; the Syriac has El Shaddai Aloha; and the Samaritan Version, in Genesis 17:1, Anah Chiulah Sapukah, "I am the Mighty, the Sufficient.'' It may be remarked that the first revelation of this name to Abraham is joined with a command to walk before God and to be perfect; a command which fallen humanity can only obey by the effectual grace of the All-Sufficient Being who gives it. Compare Isaiah 40:28, 31.

V. Adonai, "The Lord" (Gen 15:8); either from dun, "to judge," and so expressing the rectoral dominion of God, or from adon (pointed eden), "a basis," "foundation"; a title of the Divine Supporter and therefore Proprietor and Lord of all creation. [In Deut 32:4 God is called Ha Tsur, "the Rock," as the foundation and strength of created existence.] The form Adonai is considered to be the pluralis excellentiae. It must be distinguished from Adoni, "my lord," the common title given to a superior.

VI. Helton or Elyon, the Most High; from halah or alah, "to ascend," or "excel": the Great Supreme, God over all. Genesis 14:22: El Helyon koneh shammayim va-arets, "God the most High, possessor of the heavens and earth." Onkelos, El Illaah. Jonathan, Eloha Illaha. Samaritan Version, "The Most Mighty." Septuagint, upsistos, Altissimus.

Note. Memra da Yeya. Though this designation, peculiar to the Chaldee Targums, may not be classed with the Divine names as given in the Hebrew Scriptures, yet as it is often used in the paraphrases as an equivalent for some one of them, it ought not to be omitted in the present conspectus. We have already offered some observations upon it in the Introduction; and only add here a short supplement, by way of giving clearer definement and stronger corroboration to the doctrine there laid down.

The term Memra is used in a variety of acceptations. It is what the grammarians call verbum polusemon, "a word of several meanings." 1. Memra has the sense of a mere articulate word or spoken declaration. In such places it generally wants the final aleph: memr, "a word," sermo, oratio, like pithgama or milla in Chaldee. 2. It is used with the import of an emphatic pronoun. Thus, memri, "my word," equivalent to "I myself"; memreka, "thou thyself"; memrieh, "he himself." Example: "There is a covenant between me and thee." Kayema bein memri uvein memrika. So Genesis 26:3: "I will be with thee." Targ.: Ve yehe memri be sahduk: "And My word," i. e., I Myself, "will be thy helper." 3. As a personal appellation, intensifying the idea of personality. It is then Memra da Yeya, "the Word of the Lord," i. e., the Lord Himself. Exodus 19:17: "And Moses led forth the people to meet with God." Targum: Likdamoth Memra da Yeya, "to meet with the Word of the Lord." So Exodus 3:11, 12, 14; Genesis 1:27, 28:21.

But, 4.—and here is the point in question—It is used, we affirm, not only as a proper name, but as the proper name of one Person in the Godhead, as distinguished from another, so as to indicate in some degree the Targumist's perception of the mystery of a Personal Subsistence in the Divine nature, who is God with God, a second Person in the yet undivided Being of the One Jehovah. For the proof we adduce the following examples.

(1.) Genesis 16:7: Hebrew text: "And the Angel of the Lord found her by a fountain of water in the wilderness...And he said, Hagar, whence camest thou, and whither wilt thou go? And she said, I flee from the face of my mistress. And the Angel of the Lord said to her, Return...I will multiply thy seed exceedingly, that it shall not be numbered for multitude...And she called the name of Jehovah who spake to her, Thou God seest me: for she said, Have I also here looked after Him who seeth me? Wherefore the well was called Beer laharoi, A well to the Living One who seeth me."

Targum of Palestine: "And the Angel of the Lord found her at the fountain of waters in the desert...And he, said, Hagar,... whence comest thou, and whither dost thou go? And she said, From before my mistress have I fled. And the Angel of the Lord said to her, Return...Multiplying I will multiply thy sons, and they shall not be numbered for multitude...And she gave thanks before the Lord, whose Memra spake to her, and thus said, Thou art He who livest and art Eternal; who seest, but art not seen: for she said, Here is revealed the glory of the Shekinah of the Lord after a vision." [Jerusalem Targum: "And Hagar gave thanks and prayed in the Name of the Memra of the Lord, who had been manifested to her, saying, Blessed be Thou, Eloha, the Living One of Eternity, who hast looked upon my affliction...Wherefore she called the well, The well at which the Living and Eternal One was revealed."]

Here Hagar sees God, and the Memra, in one. But in the Memra she sees the Angel of the Lord, i. e., one who is sent. A person cannot be described as sending himself: but God sends the Memra: the Memra is therefore God, but God in a second personality.

(2.) Exodus 33:21: "And the Lord said, Behold, there is a place by Me, and thou shalt stand upon a rock. And it shall come to pass, while My glory passeth by, that I will put thee in a cleft of the rock, and will cover thee with My hand, while I pass by."

Targ. Palest.: "Thou shalt stand upon the rock: and it shall be that when the glory of My Shekinah passeth before thee, I will put thee in a cavern of the rock, and I will overshadow thee with My Memra, until the time that I have passed by." The distinction here is plain. The Memra overshadows Moses while Jehovah passes by.

(3.) Numbers 23:4: Hebrew text: "And God met Bileam." Targ. Palest.: "And the Memra from before the Lord met Bileam." Conf. Onkelos in loc. and the margin.

(4.) Of the Angel whom the Lord promises Moses (Exo 23:20) to send before the people to be their guide and protector through the wilderness, He says, "Observe him, and obey his voice:...for My Name is in him:" ki Shemi bekirbo, "quia Nomen Meum in interiori ejus est"; and therefore some of the rabbins identify the Angel with Shaddai. See Jarchi in loco. In this view, "My Name is in him," is equivalent with "My Nature or Essence is in him." He is the Divine Angel; Malak habberith, "the Angel of the Covenant"; Malak haggoel, "the Angel the Redeemer." But in the Targums this Angel is identified with the Memra. Thus, in Deuteronomy 31:6, Moses, referring to the promise of the heavenly Guide, bids the Israelites cast away all fear of their enemies; where the Targum reads, "Fear them not: for the Memra of the Lord thy God will be the Leader before thee." And in Joshua 5:14, 15, the Being who had the appearance of a man, as He spake with the Hebrew captain, but whose presence made the ground on which He stood "holy ground," says to him (according to the Targum), "I am the Angel sent from the presence of God...And Joshua fell upon his face, and adored." "This Angel," says Moses Ben Nachman, "is the Angel Redeemer, of whom it is written, 'For My Name is in him.' He is the Angel who said to Jakob, 'I am the God of Bethel'; He it is of whom it is said, 'God called to Moses out of the bush.'...For it is written, 'Jehovah brought us up out of Egypt'; and elsewhere, 'He sent His Angel, and brought us up out of Egypt.' Again it is written, 'And the Angel of His Presence saved them'; that Angel, namely, who is the Presence of God, of whom it is said, 'My Presence shall go with thee, and I will give thee rest.' Finally, this is the Angel of whom the prophet speaks, 'He whom ye seek shall suddenly come to His temple, even the Angel of the Covenant whom ye delight in.'" In the passage quoted here by the Rabbi, from Isaiah 63:8, 9, the Targum of Jonathan ben Uzziel identifies the Angel with the Memra, sent to redeem and to save. The comment of Philo is equally remarkable: "God, as the Shepherd and King, conducts all things according to law and righteousness, having established over them" ton orthon autou logon, protogonon uion, "His true Word (and) Only Begotten Son, who, as the Viceroy of the great King, protects and ministers to this sacred flock. For it is said, Behold, I am: I will send My angel before thy face to keep thee in the way." (De Agricult., Opp., i., 308.)

Taking these passages into consideration, it seems difficult to arrive at any other conclusion than that the doctrine of the Targum on this subject is the same as that of St. John: "In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God." Onkelos and Jonathan ben Uzziel are witnesses to such a faith existing in the pre-apostolic times; and Philo of Alexandria, when discoursing with such amplitude upon the Logos, writes not as a mere Platonic philosopher, but as a believer in the traditional theology of his fore-fathers. The germ of this article of their faith they found in their canonical Scriptures. See the texts in our Introduction.



The first promise given by God to fallen man was the promise of a Saviour. It speaks of Him as "the seed of the woman,"—zarah, her "offspring." Eve saw in the birth of her first son a pledge of the fulfilment of the promise, and said, "I have obtained a man from the Lord." Onkelos: "I have obtained the Man from before the Lord." Syriac: "I have obtained the Man of the Lord": Kanith Gabro la-Morio. For the scriptural comments on the promise and its antecedents, compare John 8:44; 1 John 3:8; 1 Corinthians 15:47. This first promise, though veiled in enigma, was plain enough to banish despair and kindle new hope: it sank deep into the human breast, and the children of Adam carried it with them in all their wanderings. It is well called the Proto-Evangelium, the Primary Gospel. It was comparatively obscure; for we expect not the splendour of the meridian hour to come at early dawn: but, as time passed, new revelations contributed to clear it up,

"While light on light, and ray on ray,
Successive brighten'd into day."
Even in the Pentateuch we witness such a progression.

1. The first promise merely declared that the Destroyer of the serpent should be a man.

2. In the prophecy of Noah (Gen 9:26,27), there is a presumptive implication, that of the three races who were to descend from that patriarch, the expected One would spring from that of Shem.

3. Among the Shemitic nations, that which would have Abraham for their ancestor was to be the favoured people, who should claim Him as their kinsman. (Gen 12:1-3, 18:18, 22:18;—bezareka, "in thy seed." Compare Gen 26:4; Acts 3:25; Gal 3:8,9,16,18.) Then,

4. Of the tribes into which the Abrahamic nation was divided, Judah's would be that from which the Lord was to arise: Genesis 49:10; where Shiloh is a name of the Messiah. Some modern Jewish interpreters make it, indeed, the name of the place so called, and put it in the dative, rendering ad ki yavo Shiloh, "until," or "even though, they come to Shiloh." But this does violence to the very grammar of the words. Shiloh is the nominative, and the verb yavo is in the singular, "he shall come." The Targums translate Shiloh by "the King Messiah"; and the Palestine one describes Him as "a son of Jehudah." The Talmud (Sanhedrin) takes the same view. So does Abravanel in his commentary on the text; and that found in the Zohar lays down the same doctrine, with the addition that the letter i, yod, (the initial of Jehovah,) in the name, indicates that the Messiah will be a Divine person. The name Shiloh signifies "the Maker of Peace."

5. As a Priest, the Messiah is typified in Aharon, who had the title of Kohen ha Mashiach, "the Anointed Priest."

6. As a Prophet, in Moses, Deuteronomy 18:15-18. The Jewish application of this prediction to the succession of prophets at large is utterly opposed to the terms of the text, all of them in the singular number. "A prophet, from the midst of thee," kamoni, "like myself, will the Lord thy God raise up unto thee: him shall ye hear." So also in the Divine promise: "A prophet," kamoka, "like thee will I raise up; and I will put My word in his mouth, and he shall speak," &c. But it is also written that "among all the prophets that followed Moses, no one was like him"; and as the great national deliverer, the mediator of an alliance with God, a legislator who established a dispensation of religion, and as the head of the body ecclesiastical, no prophet could arise like Moses, till He came who is the Wisdom and the Word of God. (John 1:17,18; Luke 9:29-26; Acts 3:22.)

7. As a King, he is symbolized by the star and the sceptre in the prophecy of Balaam, Numbers 24:17-19. Onkelos: "When a king shall arise from Jacob, and the Messiah become great in Israel." So, too, Eben Ezra, who says that many Hebrew commentators agree in explaining it of the Messiah. In the great revolt of the Jews in Hadrian's time, their leader, the pretended Messiah Barkokab, derived his prestige from that assumed name of "the Son of the Star," in allusion to this very prophecy; fulfilled typically and partially by David's victories over Edom and Moab; but only really and Divinely in the world-saving victory and blessed reign of Him "who is the Root and Offspring of David, and the bright and morning Star."



Elohim acherim. Onkelos, Elaha ocharan. Gr. Theoi eteroi (Exo 20:3).

Baal or Bahal, Chal. Behel, or, the guttural omitted, Bel; most commonly used with the article, Ha-Baal, to distinguish the name of the god from the ordinary term baal, "a lord," or "master" (Num 22:41; Deut 4:3). Baal was the sun-god of the Phenicians, Canaanites, and Babylonians, and was worshipped as the productive power of nature. The plural Baalim denotes either the images of the god, or the various properties attributed to him. The name Baal is sometimes put not only for the sun, but also for the planet Jupiter, and is then joined with Gad, the designation of that star in the oriental astronomy. So, too, in the Zabian mythology Jupiter takes the name of Bel.

Ashtoreth (the Astarte of the Greeks) was the feminine producing power of nature. As the masculine power was recognised and adored in the sun, so the moon was the symbol of Ashtoreth. The name Ashtoroth Karnaim in Genesis 14:5, "the two horned Ashtoreths," carries evident reference to the moon as she appears in the early nights of the month. As Baal is connected with the planet Jupiter, so Ashtoreth, among the Syro-Phenicians, had a similar relation to that of Venus.

Peor, Pehor, or Baal Pehor: LXX., Beelphegor: worshipped by the Moabites and Midianites with licentious practices (Num 25:1-9; Deut 4:3). The Rabbins give an obscene meaning to the name Peor; but others, as Gesenius, derive it from an old verb, still retained in Ethiopic, signifying to "serve" or "worship."

Chemosh, Kemosh, Chamos (Num 21:29), is considered to be another name for the idol Pehor. The etymology is hopeless. A black star was used as the symbol of Chemosh, which seems to give him a connexion with the planet Saturn.

Molok, or Ha-Molek, literally "the ruling one," from malak, "to reign"; and so rendered in the Septuagint by the appellatives ho archon and Basileus, as well as by the retained Hebrew name, with the spelling of Moloch From the similar meaning of the name with that of Baal, "a sovereign," or "lord," Molek is regarded as another epithet for the same deity,—the Ruler of Existence; but as manifesting his dominion in the destruction of life, a phase of character opposite to that of Habaal, the Sovereign Producer. Hence the worship of Molek was solemnized with fatal rites. The parent surrendered the life of his offspring, and burned his own child as a holocaust (Lev 18:21, 20:1-5; Jer 19:5; Eze 16:20). The names of Malcham and Milkom (1 Kings 11:5; Zeph 1:5) are variations of Molek. In the astro-religious system of the Phoenicians the gloomy planet Saturn, "stella nocens," (Lucan, i. 652) was looked upon as his representative.

Seirim, or Sehirim, "satyrs" (Lev 17:7); literally, "hairy ones," "goats." Onkelos and Syriac, Sheidin, "demons." LXX., mataioi, "vanities."

Shedim, "demons" (Deut 32:17). So also Onkelos, Septuagint, and Syriac. The Arabic Version has Sheateen, "Satans."

Besides these proper or descriptive names of the Gentile deities in the Pentateuch, there are several others employed as epithets of execration or contempt.

Elilim, from elil, "of nought, vain, false, of nothing worth."

Hebilim, from hebel, "a breath or vapour; something light or vain" (Deut 32:21).

Toeboth, "abominations" (Deut 32:16). Zarim, the same.

Gillulim (Deut 29:16): probably from galal, "dung"; hence the name is rendered in the margin by "dungy gods"; Vulgate, sordes.

Shikutsim, "abominations," (ibid.,) from shakats, "to be filthy or loathsome."

The visible representation of a god, a material idol, is designated in the Pentateuch by

Pesel, "a graven or carved image" (Exo 20:4); from pasal, "to cut or hew." Onkelos, tselam, "a resemblance." The most common name in the Targums for idols is taavath, or taavan.

Temunah (Exo 20:4): Onkelos, demuth, "similitude," which well represents the meaning of the Hebrew. LXX., omoioma.

Semel, "a likeness," (similitude,) and Tabnith, "a form or model,"—both in Deuteronomy 4:16. Onkelos, Tsura, "a type"; Gr. gluptos, "a sculpture, or shaped form."

Matsebah, "a statue," from Natsab, "to stand firmly" (Deut 7:5). Onkelos, Kama. This may be a denomination not only of an idol in human or other form, but also of an anointed stone or pillar of the well known class called Batylia.

Chammanim, "sun images"; Leviticus 26:30, where Onkelos has chanisnesekun, "your monuments to the sun." "Delubra, statuae solares, soli dicatae."—Castel. "Temples of the sun."—Eben Ezra. The German Jewish commentators, Mendelssohn, &c, prefer "sun columns, or obelisks."

Eben maskith, lapis speculationis. Onkelos, eben segida, "a stone for adoration"; LXX., lithos skopos, "a conspicuous stone," a hieroglyphical monument; rendered in some texts, "a stone of devices" (Lev 26:1).

Massekah, "a molten image," from nasak, "to melt or cast." Onkelos, mattekah (Deut 27:15).

Teraphim (Gen 31:19). The obscurity which hangs over the true meaning of this word may be judged of by the multiplicity of derivations assigned to it. 1. That, by a change in the first letter, it is equivalent to Seraphim, and may denote images of bright or burnished brass. 2. That it comes from tseraph, "to melt"; (whence tsoreph, "a goldsmith";) and signifies "molten images." 3. It comes from rapha, "to heal," and describes talismans used as charms for curing or averting diseases. 4. From taraph, (in Hiphil,) "to feed, nourish" (like the Greek trethein). The Teraphim, in this view, were some kind of objects, the presence of which in a house was thought to insure support and plenty. 5. Some Rabbins make it a term of contempt, from turaph, "shamefnlness"; and others, 6. With the same idea, derive it from raphaim, "weak things," like the dead. 7. Another opinion assigns it to the Syriac teraph, "to ask of, inquire"; in which respect the Teraphim were domestic oracles. The only certainty is, that they were household idols, like the lares and penates. Onkelos renders the word by tselmanaya, "images"; the Septuagint, eidola; and the Persic translator, by "astrolabes."

The priesthood of these heathen deities are called in the Hebrew Bible by the name Kemarim; from kamar, "to burn"; Chald., kumara. In addition to the priests of the heathen altar, we read in the Pentateuch and elsewhere of a class or classes of hierophants whose profession lay among the mystical rites which were supposed to open to mortals an intercourse with the spiritual world. They are noticed under the following names:—

Mekashephim (Deut 18:10). Mekasheph, "a magician or sorcerer"; from kashaph, originally, "to offer prayer," but degenerated to idolatrous incantations. Onkelos renders the noun by charash; and the Septuagint, pharmakos. Such as used herbs and drugs, the blood of victims and the bones of the dead, for their operations, burning them on an altar or tripod. So the magicians, Exodus 7:11, did their wonders, by their lehatim, "flames." (Rashi; Maimonides; Eben Ezra; who derive the word from lahat, "to burn"; while others make it come from lut, "to hide or conceal," and render lehatim by "their occult artifices." Onkelos: belachashehun, "by their incantations.")

Chartumim, (from cheret, "an engraving tool, an iron pen, or style,") "interpreters of hieroglyphics," Gr. ierogrammateis. More generally, "interpreters of dreams, casters of nativities, astrologers" (Exo 7:11).

Hakamim, or Chakamim, "sages; men of science"; from chakam, "to be skilful." The same class of persons as the Chartumim. LXX., "sophists." The name was given to the physicians and scientific attendants in the royal court, like the Arabian hakims (Exo 7:11).

Yiddeonim, from yada, "to know": "wise men, wizards, soothsayers" (Deut 18:11; Lev 19:31).

Menachashim, "augurs"; from the root nachash, indicating the use of serpents in some manner in their operations. So the verb nachash in Pihel is "to divine or augur" (Deut 18:10).

Meonen, "an augur who divines by the drift of clouds, the flight of birds, &c." (Deut 18:10).

Doresh el hammethim, "a necromancer, an inquirer of or from the dead." Deuteronomy 18:11: Eperoton tous nekrous.

Kosem Kesamim, "a diviner by divination," from kasam, "to divine"; one who made auguries by lots; Gr. manteuomenos manteian (Deut 18:10).

Chober chaber, "a user of spells" (Deut 18:11); from chabar, "to bind together"; one who practised magic by knotted things or the conjunction of words. Compare Virgil, Ecl. viii. 77.

Shoel ob, "a consulter with evil spirits" (Deut 18:11). Ob or Aub is "a bottle or bag," primarily; also, "the stomach"; yet is applied to a necromancer, who professes to call up the dead for consultation. From the primary meaning of the term the shoel ob has been thought to be a mere ventriloquist, simulating the voice of an unseen being supposed to be present. The Greek rendering of ob is "a Pythonist." I believe aub is Coptic for "a serpent."

There is a significant epithet used several times in the Targums on the Pentateuch, in reference to many of the artists mentioned above; that of badin, "impostors."



While the flame of the Shekinah diffused its beams over the eastern gate of Eden, the children of Adam had the visible token that God had not forsaken the earth, nor left them to the utter desolation of apostasy; and when, in after days, the Sanctuary arose at His bidding in the wilderness, the same token of mercy reappeared in the Place where His law was enshrined, His Name revealed, and His purposes of mercy set forth in types and foreshadows of the great Redemption, whose blessings are to become the heritage of all the families of the earth at the full unfoldment of His kingdom, when the "great voice out of heaven" will be heard, saying, "Behold, the Tabernacle of God is with men, and He will dwell with them, and they shall be His people, and God Himself shall be with them and be their God."

I. The holy Tabernacle, though the work of man's hands, was made according to a Divinely revealed archetype, in Hebrew a tabenith, (from the root banah, "to build,") a model for building, an exemplar, disclosed to the eyes of Moses in the mount (Exo 25:40). For tabenith Onkelos has demuth, "likeness," and the Septuagint typos.

The materials were supplied by the voluntary contributions of the people, and constituted a national oblation, terumah, "a thing uplifted, and offered to God": Onkelos, aphrashutha, "a separation," i.e., of those portions of their property for the sacred purpose.

II. General names for the Tabernacle. 1. Kodesh, or Kadash, "the Holy." 2. Mikdash, "sanctuary." 3. Ohel, "the tent"; LXX., skene. 4. Mishkan, "the dwelling"; Chal., mashkena, from shakan, "to dwell." 5. Ohel ha Eduth; Targ., Mashkan zimna, "the Tabernacle of ordinance, or appointment"; from Chal., zeman, "paravit, praeparavit, destinavit"; Syriac, Mashkan zabno; LXX., Skene tou marturiou. 6. Ohel Moed, "the Tabernacle of meeting," conventus. 7. Ha Beth, "the House." 8. Mishkan Kebod Yehovah, "the Dwelling of the Glory of the Lord."

III. Terms relating to the form of the Tabernacle.

1. The Court (see Exo 36, &c.), Chatsar ha mishkan; Chal., Darath mashkena; Gr. aule, atrium; Syr., Dorotho; the enclosure or area in which the Tabernacle stood. It was open to the sky; the surroundings were formed by wooden pillars, amudim, Gr. stuloi, with silver-plated capitals, roshim, based in sockets, adonim, "supporters," Chal., samka, of brass. To these columns were appended silver hooks, vavim, through which passed the silver rods, chashukim, overspread with the hangings, kelahim, Chal., seradin, Gr. istia, curtains of shesh mashezor, "fine twined linen," fastened to the ground by yetudoth, "pins of brass." The length of the court was one hundred cubits, about fifty-eight yards, with twenty pillars on each side; the breadth, fifty cubits, with ten pillars; the height, five cubits. At the east end was the gate of the court, shaar ha chatser; Chal., tera-daretha; Gr. pule tes aules. It had four columns, over which was spread a hanging, masak, Chal., perasa, Gr. kalumma, of twenty cubits, wrought with threads of blue, purple, scarlet, and white.

2. The Tabernacle itself stood somewhat beyond the middle of the court; in form, oblong; length from east to west, thirty cubits; breadth from north to south, ten cubits; and height, ten cubits.

The walls were constructed of boards, kerashim, Chal., dapaya, of the acacia tree, ets shittim* Gr. xulon asepton, "incorruptible wood," forty-eight in number; twenty on the north, twenty on the south side, six on the west, with one additional at two of the comers. The boards were ten cubits in length, a cubit and a half broad, and a half cubit thick. They were plated with gold. They stood upright, secured to the earth by having each two tenons, yadoth, fastening into two sharp-pointed silver adonim or "supporters," which entered the surface of the ground. The boards were united by bars, or poles, berichim, running transversely through golden rings, tebaoth, fastened on the outside of the boards. On the eastern end of the tabernacle there were no boards. The east end was covered with a veil or hanging, masak, Sept., epispastron, of blue, red, crimson, and twined linen, embroidered; a tapestry of ten cubits square, suspended on five columns of gold-coated acacia wood, with brasen supporters.

* A tree of the genus Acacia; either the Acacia gummifera or the A. Seyal; both of which have abounded in the valleys of the Arabian wilderness.
Over this outward framework there were four integuments. (1.) The interior sides were covered by ten curtains, yerioth, Onkelos, yerihan, Sept., aulaiai, each twenty-eight cubits long and four cubits broad; the material, fine twined byssus, shesh mashezor, with in-wrought figures of cherubim in blue, purple, and scarlet. These curtains were joined with each other by fifty purple loops, lelaoth, Onkelos, anubin, Sept., agkulai, and fifty golden hooks, keresim, Onk, phurephin. This interior covering has the name of Ha Mishkan, "the Tabernacle." (2.) The second, called "the Tent," Ohel, Chal. Pherasa, consisted of curtains woven of goats' hair, yerioth izzim, spread over the outside of the first curtains. (3.) Over this was a third covering, of rams' skins dyed red, oroth eilim meaddamim; Onkelos, mashkey dedikrey mesamkey, "skins of rams reddened"; and, (4.) The whole was surmounted by a fourth defence, composed of "badgers' skins," oroth techashim;* Onkelos, mashkey de-sasgona, "skins of purple." These last two integuments of the Tabernacle have the common name of ha mikeseh, "the covering."
* What animal was called by this name is perfectly uncertain: whether the badger, the jackal, or the seal.
3. The interior of the structure consisted of two compartments, having a different relative degree of sacredness,—the Holy, and the Most Holy. The first has the name of Ha Kodesh, "the Holy," "the Sanctuary"; Onkelos, kudesha; Sept., ta agia, (in the New Testament, skene prote, Heb 9:2). It was twenty cubits long and ten cubits high. The second, Kodesh ha kadashm, "the Holy of Holies," Onk., Kodesh kudshaya, Gr. agia ton agion, was a perfect square, of ten cubits in length, breadth, and height. It was divided and concealed from the sanctuary by a magnificent veil or curtain, ha paroketh, Onk., paruktha, Sept. katapetasma, fabricated in blue, purple, scarlet, and fine twined linen, with cherubic figures, and suspended on four columns overlaid with gold.

IV. Apparatus of the Tabernacle. The sacred building itself stood, not exactly in the middle of the court, but twenty cubits distant from the northern, southern, and western sides of it; so that the larger space of fifty cubits might lie between the gate of the court on the east, and the first veil or door of the tabernacle.

In this larger space of the Court stood,

1. The Altar of Burnt Sacrifice, misbeach ha olah; Chal., madbecha de-altha; Sept., thusiasterion; three cubits high, and five in length and breadth, formed of boards, luchoth, of acacia, and covered with brass. Being portable, it was hollow; but, when stationary for service, was filled with earth to the upper rim. The four corners projected upwards, like horns, karnoth, Gr. ta kerata, to which the living animal might be bound (Psa 118:27), and serving also to prevent the dead carcase from falling off. A border, or ledge, karkob, went round the top; with which was connected a network of brass, resheth nechosheth, to receive fragments of fuel, &c, which fell away from the burning mass. At the four corners strong rings, tabaoth, were fixed, through which went the staves employed for the carriage of the altar.

The utensils for the work done at the altar were, shovels, yayim, for collecting the ashes; pots, siroth, for carrying them away; bowls, or basins, mizrakoth, for receiving the blood which was to be sprinkled; forks, or tongs, mizlagoth, for manipulating the parts of the sacrifice in the fire; and brasen shovels, machtoth, "fire-pans."

2. The Laver, kiyor, Chal., kiyora, Gr. louter, a large vase, probably semicircular, standing on a ken, or basis. This receptacle for the water needed by the priests for their ablutions was founded with the finest brass (Exo 38:8), such as ancient mirrors were made of, and admitted of a fine polish, which rendered the surface of the laver available as a mirror in which the priests could see their own resemblance. It stood between the altar and the curtain of the sanctuary.

Within the Holy Place were,

1. The Candelabrum, menorah, from ner, "a light"; Onkelos, menartha; Gr. luchnia: the material, pure gold; in weight a talent. From its base, yerek, rose a perpendicular shaft or stem, kaneh, from which projected six carved branches, kanim, three on each side, reaching in height to the top of the stem. The candelabrum had a height of three cubits, and a breadth from the extremities of the opposite branches of two cubits. On the six branches and on the top of the shaft were lamps, seven in all, supplied every evening with olive oil. Three, or, according to others, one lamp, ever burned; the rest were lighted at evening, and extinguished in the morning. The branches were adorned with the forms of almond and pomegranate flowers, and apples, or some ornament of a spherical shape. The utensils were, the snuffers, malkachim, and the fire-pans, machtoth. The candelabrum stood within the south-western side of the sanctuary.

2. The Table, shulchan, Onk., phatora, Sept., trapeza, made of acacia, a cubit and a half high, two cubits long, and one broad; the whole plated with gold. The top of the table was surrounded with a border (zer) of gold; and below the top, or leaf, was a wooden band, misgereth, about four inches broad, with a border. Four tabaoth zahab, or "rings of gold," were fastened to the legs, for the transport of the table. It stood in the sanctuary on the north side.

Upon this table were placed twelve unleavened cakes, chaloth, in two rows, six in each. Over the cakes incense was burned, probably in a censer, to signify that they were consecrated, offered and set before God. Hence the name lechem ha panaim, "bread of the Presence." They were renewed every Sabbath, and always on the table, lechem tamid, "the perpetual bread." They are sometimes called lechem le azkarah, Chal., lechem le adkara, "the bread of memorial"; a token of gratitude for daily bread, and an expression of trust in the God of Providence. They were a memorial furnished by the people, and therefore twelve loaves, after the number of the tribes.

The table was provided with a service of utensils: kearoth, "dishes," acetabula, in which the bread was brought and taken away; bowls, kaphoth, for the frankincense burned over the bread; kesoth and menakioth, "cans" and "cups" for libations connected with the burning of the frankincense; all of gold.

3. The Altar of Incense, mizbeach mikter ketoreth; Onkelos, midbecha le-aktera alohi ketorath busemin, "the altar on which to burn sweet incense": so also mizbeach ha penimi, "the inner altar," because within the sanctuary. The Septungint terms it thusiasterion thumiamatos; the Syriac, madebcho de maatar etro, "the altar fuming perfume." It was two cubits high and one in length and breadth, constructed of acacia wood, plated with pure gold; mizbeach ha zahab, "the golden altar." It had a wreath, zer, and karnoth, or "horns," of the same.

The Incense, ketoreth, was compounded of four ingredients: (1.) Nataph, i. e., storax; (2.) Shekeleth, i. e., onycha; (3.) Chelbenah samim, sweet galbanum; (4.) Lebonah zaka, "pure frankincense." Onkelos: (1.) Natupha; (2.) Tuphera; (3.) Chelbentha busesin; (4.) Lebuntha dakyetha. The Peschito Syriac the same. Septuagint: (1.) Stakte; (2.) Onucha; (3.) Chalbane edusmou; (4.) Libanos diaphanes. These, it should be added, were mixed with salt; Exodus 30:35, memullach, "salted"; where Onkelos reads mearah, "mixed," i. e., with salt, as the emblem of incorruptness.

Other ingredients were subsequently added in the temple practice. Maimonides enumerates myrrh, cassia, spikenard, saffron, costus, cinnamon, sweet bark, salt, amber, and a combustible root or herb he calls maalath asam, "the smoke-raiser." (Keley ha Mikdash. ii., sect. 3.) Such multiplications were unwarrantable: but the Rabbins defend them by a tradition that they were ordained to Moses on Mount Sinai.

Incense was offered, at daybreak (Yoma iii., 1, 5), and after the evening sacrifice. It was the emblem of acceptable worship, and especially of prayer which presses heavenward (Psa 141:2).

In burning incense the priest used a censer, machtah (from chathah, "to take fire or coals" from hearth or altar), Chal., machtitha, LXX. pureion, "a burner," thuiske, thumiaterion, "thurible for incense"; a vessel of metal; form not certainly known. In the daily service it was carried by the priest into the holy place and set upon the golden altar, and was probably shaped like a chalice, with a base for standing upon the altar. But the censer which the high priest held in his hand on the day of atonement must have been furnished with a chain or handle. The censer used in the daily service was of brass; that carried by the high priest within the veil was of gold.

Beyond the veil, in the Holy of Holies, stood the emblematic Throne of God; that is to say, the Ark and Mercy-seat, overshadowed by the wings of the cherubim.

1. The Ark, aron, Chal., arona; termed also aron ha eduth, "the ark of the testimony," Gr. kibotos tou marturiou; and aron ha berith, "the ark of the covenant," Gr. kibotos tes diathekes; was an oblong coffer, or chest, made of acacia wood, and plated with gold within and without, with an exterior border round the top, of pure gold. The length was two cubits and a half, the breadth one cubit and a half, and the height the same as the breadth. Like the two altars, it had rings with staves for transportation.

Within the ark were deposited the sheney luchoth abanim, the "two tables of stone," inscribed with the eduth, or "testimony" of the moral law. Before it stood the urn of manna, and the blossomed rod of Aharon, and on one side the manuscript of the law (Deut 31:26).

2. The Mercy-Seat. In some commentaries and books on the Jewish ritual the mercy-seat is described as being " the lid of the ark"; but that is a mistake. The ark had its own lid, of acacia wood plated with gold; but in the Divine directory, Exodus 25:17, the mercy-seat is spoken of as an object distinct from the ark, and formed of gold only. The lid covered the ark; but the mercy-seat covered the lid; verse 21, "Thou shalt put the mercy-seat," al ha-aron milmaelah, "UPON the ark ABOVE." So, on the day of atonement, the high priest is directed to sprinkle the blood, not on the surface of the lid of the ark, but upon the front of the mercy-seat toward the east. In size, it was precisely of the same length and breadth as the ark, so as to fit within the rim which surrounded the lid, and, according to the Talmud, (Succah 5,) was a handbreadth in thickness.

The name by which it is commonly designated is ha-kapporeth, Chaldee, kappurtha, Sept., hilasterion, "the propitiatory." The Hebrew name comes from kaphar, "to cover"; in Pihel, "to atone for," and "to forgive." In the Hebrew Bible forgiveness is called "the covering of sin" (Psa 32:1). The mercy-seat is the place of meeting between a reconciled God and redeemed man (Exo 25:22; Heb 4:16; Num 7:89).

3. United with, and fabricated of the same massive gold as, the mercy-seat, were two symbolical figures called Kerubim, Chal., Kerubaia; one at each end, standing in a bending attitude, as if looking into the ark. Everything relating to these objects is veiled in mystery. No intimation is given about their forms or lineaments, except that their wings overspread the mercy-seat. In the more graphic descriptions of the Cherubim seen by Ezechiel (chap 1 and 10), and by St. John (Rev 4), they are represented with the four faces of the ox, the lion, the eagle, and the man; but from Exodus 25:20 it may be inferred that those upon the ark had only the human visage; which seems to authorize the idea of Eben Ezra, that they had the appearance of "winged men." Among the opinions about the meaning of these mystic forms, one is, that they were emblems of the Divine Presence; and another, that they set forth a representation of redeemed humanity. The name Cherub has been variously derived. Some consider the word the same as the Hebrew ki rob, "like the mighty"; some think it to be the Chaldee ki rabia, "like a young man"; others, the Syriac kerub, "great or powerful."

4. "The King eternal, immortal, invisible, whom no man hath seen, or can see," was mercifully pleased, under both the patriarchal and Mosaic dispensations, to make His Presence known by a visible splendour, an intense light, or effulgence, to which is given the name of Ha-kebod Yehovah, "the Glory of the Lord"; Chaldee, Yekara da Yeya; Sept., doxa Kuriou; Syr., Shubcho da-morio (Lev 9:23). Such a Theophany was given in the Holy of Holies, above the ark, between the cherubim (Psa 80:2; 1 Sam 4:4; Exo 25:22). So did the Divine Being condescend to reveal His purpose to dwell in the sanctuary: and on His account the name of The Shekinah is applied to the visual glory. The word shekinah does not, indeed, occur in the Hebrew Bible, but is used by the Jewish theologians, as a derivative from the biblical word shakan, "to dwell," to denote the presence and inhabitation of the God of Israel in the Tabernacle, and subsequently in the Temple. The Targumist frequently uses the word, but under the form of shekintha.

That the Tabernacle, as a whole, had a symbolical character, has been, with but few exceptions, the constant belief both of Jews and Christians. The sacred structure was an outward sign of the presence of God among His people, a shrine for His law; a centre of communication with Himself in His own way of appointment. In this point of view the Tabernacle may be called a Theocratic Sacrament. But, from strong intimations in the New Testament Scriptures, we learn to contemplate it also as a typical adumbration of the Incarnate Person and mediatorial work of Him who is the end of the law for righteousness unto every one who believeth; of the Word, who was made flesh and eskenosen en emin, "tabernacled among us, and we beheld His glory." (John 1:14.) When this principle is accepted, we find all the Tabernacle ritual brighten into a meaning worthy of its Divine Author. In the laver, with its cleansing element, the perpetual light of the golden candelabrum, the sacred bread, the altar flaming with sacrifice, the sprinkled blood, the incense which betokened availing intercession, and the High Priest who offered it, we see "the shadows of the good things to come," the passing emblems of what the Gospel unfolds to us in the immutable realities of a redemption through which all men may draw near unto God.

Note. Beside the holy Tabernacle, we read of another, called the ohel moed, "the tent of meeting" (Exo 33:7): a large tent where Moses gave audience to the people in cases requiring instruction: Chal., mishkan beth ulphano, "the tabernacle of the house of instruction."



I. Priesthood, kehunnah (Exo 40:15), in Chaldee, kahanuth, Gr. hierateia, "the office of a priest"; kohen, Gr. hiereus. The verb kahan is only used in the derivative, and does not occur in its radical form in the Hebrew Bible. Gesenius says that "in Arabic it denotes to prophesy, to foretell, as a soothsayer; and among the heathen Arabs the substantive bore that signification; also that of a mediator, or middle person who interposed in any business; which seems to be its radical meaning, as prophets and priests were regarded as mediators between men and the Deity. In the earliest families of the race of Shem, the offices of priest and prophet were undoubtedly united, so that the word originally denoted both; and at last the Hebrew idiom kept one part of the idea, and the Arabic another."*

* The heathen priests are called in the Bible by the name of kumarim.
In one respect the entire Hebrew people might have been considered a sacerdotal race, as being chosen and set apart from the Gentile world; the visible church of the only God, and His worshippers and witnesses, to whom belonged the glory and the adoption, the covenant and the service of God; and to whom were intrusted, for the world's future benefit, the oracles of Divine revelation. On this account they had the designation of kedoshim, "consecrated ones," called of God to be mamleketh kohanim, "a kingdom of priests" (Exo 19:6). But the official priesthood, the ministration of the altar, was restricted to the family of Aharon of the tribe of Levi, Leviyim.

All the men of that tribe had an ecclesiastical character, and formed, in a subsidiary manner, a sacerdotal body, intrusted with a variety of offices connected with the services of the altar, and the religious interests of the people. They entered on those duties at the age of thirty (in the later temple times at twenty), and were superannuated when fifty years old. At twenty-five they appear to have begun their novitiate or probation (Num 8:24,25): at thirty they were regularly inducted, by ablution, sacrifice, and the semicha, or imposition of hands (Num 8:5-22).

They had the charge of the Tabernacle and its contents. In the nomadic years, prior to the settlement in Canaan, the carriage of its several parts from one station to another fell to their care. They superintended the supplies for the altar, &c, and were stewards of the sacerdotal revenues. They attended the priests at the altar, and sometimes slew the victims; and in the temple services performed the office of choristers. In addition to these functions they discharged the duties of teachers, and instructed the people in the knowledge and duties of religion.

Instead of a territorial district in the land of Canaan, like the other tribes, that of Levi had a compensation, in the grant of forty-eight cities situated in various parts of the country, the tithes of the land, and remunerative gifts of the people.

Connected with the service of the Tabernacle there was a class of inferior servitors who were not Levites. They had the name of Nethinim, "given ones" (from nathan, "to give"); men granted to the Levites as helpers, as the Levites themselves had been granted to Aharon and his sons for helpers (Num 8:19); Onkelos, Mesirim, from masar, "to deliver over." On the temple Nethinim see Ezra 8:20, where for Nethinim the Peshito reads Yehibin, "given ones."

The priests had the same term of service as the Levites. They were consecrated to their office by—a. Washing (Exo 29:4). b. Sacrifice (vss 10-12). c. The application of the sacrificial blood and the anointing oil to their persons and vestments (Exo 29:20, 21). The blood was applied to their ears, hands, and feet, to remind them to hear, to act, and to walk, or conduct themselves, according to the word of God. d. By placing certain portions of the offering upon their hands (Exo 29:22-25). This act was called the milluim, "the consecration," literally "the filling," i. e., the hands of the priest with the sanctified portions. e. By investing them with the sacerdotal vestments, bigdey kodesh, "the garments of holiness": viz., 1. A cotton or linen garment reaching from the loins to the knees, miknese-bad. 2. A coat or tunic of linen, ketonethshesh, reaching to the ankles. 3. A girdle, abnet, a handbreath wide, ornamented with flowers in purple, blue, and scarlet, worn twice round the waist, the ends hanging down to the ankles, or thrown over the left shoulder. 4. A linen mitre, or cap, migbaah, from gabia, "calyx," which gives perhaps the idea of its form; LXX., kidaris. The priests wore no sandals when engaged in the Tabernacle.

II. They took their various duties there by allotment.

1. In the court: a. To attend to the fire on the altar (Lev 6:13). b. To sacrifice the victim. c. To sprinkle the blood (Lev 1:5-11). d. To wave the offering (Lev 14:24). e. To burn what was to be consumed (Lev 2:2). f. To cleanse the altar from ashes, &c. (Lev 6:9-11).

2. In the holy place: a. To fill the seven lamps with oil. b. To burn incense morn and even (Luke 1:9). c. To change the shew-bread.

3. Besides these they had various duties relating to the religious, domestic, and national affairs of the people, a. To pronounce between persons and things as ceremonially clean or unclean (Lev 13:14; Luke 17:14). b. To bind or release from vows, as the Nazirite (Num 6). c. To judge in cases of alleged adultery (Num 5). d. To teach the people the law (Lev 10:11; Mal 2:7). e. To take charge of the consecrated gifts. f. To sound the silver trumpets at festivals (Num 10:2, 8). g. To attend the army in time of war (Num 10:9).

III. Believers in the New Testament are taught to regard the Mosaic priesthood, corporately, as a typical representation of a higher one, that of Jesus Christ. In the acts performed by them at the altar and in the Holy Place were foreshadowed the real and effectual work of His mediation who is at once the altar, the victim, and the priest. But it was in the person of the High Priest that this Divine idea received its fullest typical development. In the fulfilment of his solemn offices this minister of the tabernacle made with hands became the impersonation of "our Great High Priest, the Minister of the sanctuary and of the true tabernacle, which the Lord hath pitched, and not man; who, not by the blood of goats and calves, but by His own blood hath entered into the Holy Place, having obtained eternal redemption for us" (Heb 8 and 9). With this typical reference the Hebrew pontiff bears the name not only of kohen ha rosh, and kohen ha gadol, but of KOHEN HA MASHIACH.

The first of the Levitical race who was invested with this surpassing dignity was Aharon; the last was Phannias ben Samuel, who perished at the destruction of Jerusalem. Legitimately the successor of Aharon was to be of his own lineage, the eldest son having the first or hereditary right; but this order was in the last times not unfrequently infringed.

1. The consecration of the high priest was performed with the same ceremonies as those observed at that of the common priests, with the difference that he was first clothed in his robes, and the sacred oil was poured upon his head. Hence he is called ha kohen ha Mashiach, "the anointed priest."

[The material of the holy consecrating oil—shemen mishchath kodesh, Onkelos, meshach rebuth kudesha—was a compound of—a. Pure myrrh, mar deror; Onk., mera dakia; Gr. smurna eklekte. b. Sweet cinnamon, kinneman besem, Gr. kinnamon euodes. c. Calamus, keneh besem, Gr. kalamos euodes, or aromatikos. d. Cassia, kidda, Onk., ketsiatha, Gr. iris. e. Olive oil, shemen zayith, Onk., meshach zetha, Gr. elaion ex elaion:—in the proportions given in Exodus 30:23-24. It was used exclusively for the anointing rite, and was emblematic of the gifts and graces of the Holy Spirit.]

2. The vestments of the high priest, bigdey kodesh, Onk., lelushey kudesha, Gr. stolai agiai, consisted of two sets of robes: the one of simple white linen, bigdey habad, Onk., lebushey butsa, tunic, girdle, and mitre; the white colour being symbolical of purity ( Rev 19:8). In this dress he officiated in the former part of the Day of Atonement (Lev 16:23). The other set of robes were distinguished for their magnificence, bigdey zahab, "golden garments," bigdey le-kabod u-le-tiphareth, "vestments of glory and of beauty."

(a.) The meil, Chal., meila, a robe of azure colour, Gr. huakinthos, the emblem of what is heavenly, serene, and pure; worn over the white vesture (ketoneth tashbets), it combined the idea of purity and heavenly elevation. This flowing mantle was embroidered with pomegranates, rimmonim, probably both the flowers and the fruit; they are considered emblematically to denote the love of God; and between the pomegranates small bells of gold, whose musical tones were heard as the high priest walked within the sanctuary (Exo 29:34-35).

(b.) The ephod (from aphad, "to bind, or gird on"); a short vest, Gr. epomis, Vulg., superhumerale; woven, of gold, blue, tekeleth, red, argaman, crimson, tolaath sheni* and fine twined linen, shesh mashezar;** material and colours identical with those employed in the linings and veil of the tabernacle, and no doubt with a similar ideal meaning. While blue denotes the colour of the heavens, and white is that of innocence and sanctity, crimson, which fire and blood have in common, is thought to symbolize life; and red, to stand for dignity, majesty, and royal power. The ephod was clasped on the shoulder-pieces of the robe by two large onyx stones set in gold, on which were engraven the names of the twelve tribes; the high priest being thus designated the Representative of the whole Israelitish people. The ephod was confined at the extremity by a girdle or band composed of the same materials and colours.

* Vermilion. Tolaath ha-sheni, from tolaath, a worm or insect used for dyeing, and the Arab, sheney, "to shine.'' Others derive it from the Hebrew sheney, "two," i. e, twice dyed.

** Shesh, "linen"; mashezar, "twined."

(c.) Upon the bosom of the ephod was the breastplate, choshen ha mishpat; Onkelos, choshen dina, "the instrument of judgment, or decision"; Sept., logeion ton kriseon; Vulgate, rationale; Syriac, phariso dedino, "the thorax of judgment." It was a parallelogram of two spans in length and one in breadth, but doubled or folded so as to have a breadth and length of one span, or about ten inches: the material the same as the ephod, but on the external front were inset four rows of precious stones, three in a row. i. Sardius, topaz, carbuncle, ii. Emerald, sapphire, diamond, iii. Ligure, agate, amethyst. iv. Beryl, onyx, jasper.* On these twelve stones were engraved the names of the tribes, so that the high priest bare them on his heart when he went in to appear before God. The breastplate was fastened to the ephod by golden cords inserted into golden rings on its upper corners, running into the sockets of the two onyx stones on the shoulders, and by rings at the two inferior corners, through which ran a blue ribbon. By these things the breastplate was bound inseparably to the ephod.
* I give the names of the jewels as in the common version. The reader is referred to the note at p. 537 of our translation of the Palestinian Targum on Exodus, for a tabular view of the textual variations in their names.
(d.) On his head the high priest wore a turban, mitsnepheth, from tsanaph, "to wind or wrap round"; LXX., mitra; upon which was fastened by blue ribbons a plate or diadem of gold, with the engraved inscription, KODESH LA YEHOVAH, "HOLINESS UNTO THE LORD."

(e.) Connected, though to us in some uncertain way, with the breastplate, were the Urim and Thummim, the means or instruments of decision or judgment, in doubtful matters of importance to the public interests of the nation. Urim is the plural form of the noun אוּר ur, "fire, or light," and Tummim the plural of תֹם thom, or tam, "fulness or completion, integrity, uprightness, truth," from tamam, "to be complete, or in full number, to be perfect." The ordinary rendering of Urim and Thummim is, "Lights and Perfections." Onkelos merely Aramaizes the terms, Uraia ve-tummaia. The LXX. give them by ten delosin kai ten aletheian, "manifestation and truth"; the other Greek versions by Aquila, Symmachus, and Theodotion, by tons photismous kai tas teleiotetas, "illuminations and perfections"; the Syriac, by nahiro ve shalmo, "resplendence and completion"; the Samaritan version, by "elucidations and certainties"; and the Vulgate, by doctrinam et veritatem; the Arabic, by "holiness and truth."*

* The German translators render the terms variously: Luther, Licht und Recht; so Michaelis, Bellerman, Die vollkommen Feurigen. Gesenius, Offenbarung und Wahrheit, "revelation and truth." Koster, Aufklarung und Entscheidung, "enlightenment and decision." Baehr, Vollstandige Erleuchtung, "complete illumination." Zullig, Geschliffene und ungeschliffene (Diamenten), "polished and unpolished (diamonds)," taking the Hebrew word tam in the sense of "what is simple, in its natural state, uncultured."
As to the manner in which responses were obtained by the Urim and Thummim, silente Scriptura nihil pro certo statuatur (Scripture is silent and nothing is for certain prescribed). There are several conjectures, more or less plausible, but conjectures only. Ex. gr.: 1. Two tablets, representing an affirmative or a negative, inserted within the folds or pouch of the breastplate, and used in the manner of drawing lots. 2. That the priest dressed in the ephod stood before the veil, and heard the answer pronounced by a voice from within. 3. The verbal answer could be spelled out by the priest, as one letter after another became illuminated. (See the Palestinian Targum on Exodus 28:30). 4. The wearing of the breast-plate had a moral influence on the mind of the priest, which predisposed him to receive the answer by an inward dictate of the Holy Spirit. 5. The Urim and Thummim were identical with the twelve jewels. We see in Exodus 28:30 that the Urim and Thummim were to be put upon the breastplate: what was put upon it but the jewels? They were therefore the Urim and Thummim, and were ordained to make, instrumentally, the perfect revelation, Tummim, by their lights, Urim. Now as the Divine response, unlike the more diffuse oracles given in after days by the Holy Spirit to the prophets, was vouchsafed to the high priest in a simple affirmative or negative, Yes or No, it is conjectured that the affirmative answer might have been given by the increased refulgence of the jewels, and the negative by the withholdment of it. On the general subject compare Exodus 28:30; Leviticus 8:8; Exodus 35:27; Ezekiel 28:14; 1 Samuel 23:2; and the instances in Numbers 27:18-21; Judges 1:1, 20:18, 28; 1 Samuel 14:40-43; 23:9-12, 28:6.

Among the typical persons of the Old Testament the high priest stands pre-eminently as a representative of the Messiah, 1. As the minister of atonement at the altar; 2. The intercessor before the throne; 3. The infallible counsellor with whom is the oracle of God; and, 4. As the comforter, who bears upon his lips the effectual benediction (Num 6:22-27).



I. Sacrifices. The principle of piacular sacrifice has obtained in the religions of all nations, as a token of repentant confession of sin, and a sign of hope in the pardoning mercy of God. But as the surmises of mere nature would have deterred mankind from a practice which, as destructive of a life that the Creator only could give, would augment His displeasure rather than secure His favour, it is reasonable to believe that the rite must have been adopted, not as a human expedient, but in obedience to a revelation of the Divine will. This conclusion is strengthened by the fact that the rite of sacrifice was appointed by God Himself in the Mosaic cultus, but not then first appointed by Him. Before the time of Moses He had enjoined it on Abraham (Gen 15). He had manifested His approval of it when offered by the earlier patriarchs, as by Noah, amid the solitudes of the postdiluvian world (Gen 8:20), and by Abel, at the gate of Paradise (Gen 4:3-5; Heb 11:4).

The general name for sacrifices in the Pentateuch is Zebachim. Zebach, Chal., Debach, is a victim slain at the altar, from zabach, "to kill or immolate." Korban, mettannah, terumah, masseeth, are designations for any kinds of offerings, bloody or unbloody.

The Mosaic sacrifices have been variously classified, but the most simple and comprehensive order is that in which they are arranged under the two heads of the Expiatory and the Eucharistic.

1. The first class includes the sacrifices proper. In them the life of the victim was offered for the life of the sinner, and its blood was shed as an atonement for guilt.

These piacular sacrifices were of three kinds. 1. The olah, kalil, or "whole burnt offering," because wholly consumed, and sent up, by the action of fire, in the flame and smoke of the altar. Olah, Chal., alatha, comes from alah, "to ascend"; LXX., olokautoma, "holocaust," a term which refers to the entire consumption of the victim. 2. The chattaah, or "sin offering"; the same word signifying "sin"; Chad., chattatha; Sept., amartia, i. e., peri amartias. 3. The asham, or "trespass offering," from ashmah, "to be guilty"; Chad., ashama; Sept., thusia soteriou, "the sacrifice of salvation"; Vulg., hostia pro delicto; Sept., peri plemmeleias. While the difference between sin and trespass offerings is textually marked in the Levitical law, the distinction between the offences for which they were offered is not so clearly given. Some think that "sins," in the technical phraseology of the ceremonial law, are violations of prohibitory statutes; i. e., doing something which the law forbids to do. "Trespasses," on the other hand, are violations of imperative statutes; i.e., neglecting to do those things which are commanded.

These piacular sacrifices are sometimes called kippurim, Chal., kippuraia, LXX., katharismoi, "expiations or atonements." On the question about the manner in which they were expiatory, or on the real relation between their presentation and the forgiveness of sin, there are two opposite doctrines.

a. There was that in the nature of the sacrifice itself which could efficaciously atone for sin. But the divines who take this view are not agreed as to the principle upon which the offerings became expiative. (a.) Some have thought that the virtue of the sacrifice consisted in this,—that a certain material possession was given up by the offerer for the sake of gaining a spiritual blessing. (b.) Others consider the sacrifice in the light of a fine, by the payment of which the offender is set right with his judge; while, (c.) Others, holding that evil rests in that which is material or sensual, and regarding blood as the representation of the sensual or evil principle, see in the shedding and presentation of blood at the altar a physical atonement for moral evil or sin. (d.) Yet in direct opposition to this theory another opinion considers the vital blood to have been propitiatory because it was pure, and represented the acknowledgment of the offerer's obligation to have been himself pure, and his desire to become so.

b. The second doctrine is, that the Mosaic sacrifices had not, nor could have, any intrinsic or atoning power in themselves; but derived their value from their having been Divinely appointed as means to lead the mind of the offerer to a real expiation, of which they were the symbols. They were types of the atoning sacrifice of the Lamb of God who taketh away the sin of the world, emblems of His great sacrifice whose "soul was made an offering" (asham) "for sin" (Isa 53:10), and who "redeemed us unto God by His blood": Hebrews 9:3-28, 10:10-14; Matthew 26:28; Mark 14:24; Luke 22:20; 1 Corinthians 11:24, 25; Hebrews 12:24; 1 Peter 1:2 (Exo 24:8); John 1:29, 36, 19:36, 37; 1 Corinthians 5:7; 1 Peter 2:24 (Isa 53:5-12; 2 Corinthians 5:21; 2 Corinthians 5:21; Ephesians 5:2; Romans 8:23-25, 7:25; 1 John 2:2, 4:10.

For the ritual of sacrifices, vide the first seven chapters of Leviticus. The expurgatory ordinance of the "red heifer," parah admah, Targum, tortha simketha, Sept., damalis purra (vacca rufa, quasi coloris ignei), Numbers 19, comes under the denomination of the oloth, or "burnt sacrifices," but combines with the propitiatory a purifying effect. This twofold virtue is unfolded in reality in and through the sacrifice of Christ (Heb 9:11-14).

2. The other class of Levitical oblations were Eucharistic:—Zibchey Thodah, "sacrifices of praise."

a. The Shelamim, or "peace offerings," LXX., soterion, eirevika. These were of the kinds of oblations called "bloody," consisting of the slaughtered bodies of clean and perfect sacrificial animals; certain parts of which were consumed on the altar, but the rest partaken of as a feast upon a sacrifice by the offerer and his guests. Thus the Targum always renders shelamim by nekesath kedeshaia, "consecrated victims." In their death, and the destruction of parts of them on the altar, were set forth the means of reconciliation; and in the participation of them by the offerer, the enjoyment of that reconciliation in peace with God. Under the shelamim may be ranged also the sacrifices by which covenants were confirmed.

b. Minchoth. The mincha (apparently derived from nuach, "to rest," as the husbandman reposes after the toils of harvest, or, because received graciously, with content) is expressed in the English Bible by "meat offering," and in the Jewish German one by "Mehl oder Speise-opfer" in the Peschito by kurbano da semida, "the oblation of flour"; Targum, minchatha; Sept., doron, dosis, L. munus. The various materials of the mincha are specified in the second chapter of Leviticus. They were anointed with oil, the sign of consecration, and offered with frankincense, the symbol of worship, and with salt, as a covenant token. Some portions were burned, and the remainder assigned to the priests.

An oblation of this kind was presented, (1.) As an expression of gratitude, zebach hattodah, Chal., nesach todetha, Gr. thusia tes aineseos (Lev 7:12), eucharistia. (2.) As the accompaniment of a vow, offered with prayer for some deliverance or blessing; neder, Chal., nidra, Gr. euche; or, (3.) As a voluntary gift, nedabah, Chal., nedabtha, Gr. ekousiasmos.

Among such oblations were, (1.) The sheaf or homer of barley, offered on the second day of Pascha (Lev 23:10). (2.) The two wave-loaves, lechem temupha shetayim; Onkelos, lechem aramutha tarteen geritsan; two uplifted cakes offered at Pentecost on the completion of harvest (Lev 23:17). (3.) The trespass offering of the poor, who could not afford an animal, but who were permitted to offer flour instead (Lev 5:11).

Portions of the shelamin, minchoth, and other oblations, were lifted up by the priest towards heaven. This made the thing so offered a terumah (from ram, "to elevate"), Onkelos, arama, "an elevation," Sept., aphorisma. It was an act of adoration which acknowledged God above as the supreme Giver of all good things. Again, the consecrated oblation was waved, on the outstretched hands of the priest, backward and forward, hither and thither, as toward the four points of the horizon, in acknowledgment of the universal providence of Him who giveth food to all flesh. It then took the name of tenupha (from naph, "to stretch out"), Onkelos, aphrashutha, " a separation," something held forth as devoted; LXX., aphairema, Lat. quod aufertur, vel in donarium separatur.

With a burnt-offering, in addition to the victim, a mincha of flour was offered, accompanied with oil and wine in equal proportion. The wine was poured out round the altar, as a libation; English Version, "a drink offering"; Hebrew, nesek, from nasak, "to pour out"; Onk., niseka; Sept., sponde, Lat. libamen. For the evangelic import compare Matthew 26:27, 28.

c. Bikkurim. "The earth is the Lord's, and the fulness thereof; the world, and they that dwell therein." He is the Creator and Preserver of our being, and the Giver of all our good. It is meet and right and our bounden duty to make acknowledgment of this. One way by which the Israelitish people gave confession of the Divine Proprietorship, their sense of dependence upon God, and their gratitude for His mercies, was by the presentation of their firstfruits to the Lord; and that with the full assurance that the oblation would be accepted, because it had been appointed by Himself (Exo 22:29; Lev 19:23-25; Num 15:20, 18:12,13; Deut 18:4, 26:2-11).

Such an offering was called reshith, "a firstling," from rosh* "the head," the chief or best of its kind; Gr. aparche, Lat. primitiae, proestantissimum; and Heb. bikkurim, "first-products," from bakar, "to be early," Gr. protogennemata, Syriac, rish-allaltho, "the first of the produce." The names of terumah and tenupha, already explained, are given also to some of the firstlings, because lifted up and waved at the altar. More strictly, the name bikkurim was applied to the fruits, &c, when presented in their natural state, primitvi fructus; and that of terumah, to produce no longer raw, but prepared.

* Another derivation is from the Arabic, shathath, "to separate."
1. The firstborn son was to be consecrated to God. In the patriarchal time the priesthood was invested in him who had the right of primogeniture. When the Levitical order was established, the firstborn of all the families of the tribes was presented to the Lord, but redeemed from the duties of the priesthood by a commutative fine, not exceeding five shekels. In this rite there was also a commemoration of the sparing mercy of God to Israel in the night when the firstborn of the Egyptians were destroyed (Exo 13:18; Num 18:14-16; Luke 2:27).

2. The firstlings of the flock and herd were offered as sacrifices, part of them burned, and the rest appropriated to the priests (Lev 27:26). Of animals not fit for the altar, the firstlings were to be slain, but not sacrificed. But they might be redeemed from death by the sacrifice of a lamb in their stead, or by the payment of a price, ad valorem (Lev 27:13).

3. Agrarian produce was acknowledged as the gift of God by the oblation of the firstfruits. On two occasions every year this was done representatively by the nation at large. (1.) At Passover, the barley being then ready for the sickle, a public service took place on the second day of the feast; a sheaf reaped in a field near the city was carried in solemn procession to the house of God; and the grain, with oil and frankincense, waved before the Lord of the world. (2.) At Pentecost, the harvest being then completed, the loaves made of the new corn were presented as a wave offering in the same manner.

4. These were public or national eucharists for the bounties of Providence; but all proprietors were individually bound to present their first produce, whether of the field and garden, the wool of the flock, or the honey of the hive, in the proportion, as a minimum, of one sixtieth. This might be done either by a pilgrimage to the holy place, or by bringing the oblation to the priest resident in the proprietor's neighbourhood. The fruit was brought in a basket, and presented with a formula of words prescribed in the twenty-sixth chapter of Deuteronomy.

5. Tithes, maaser, Gr. dekate. In the ideal meaning attached to numbers, ten is considered as the number of fulness and sufficiency as to worldly things, just as seven is the exponent of perfectness in things sacred. So ashar in Hebrew is "to be rich or full." In this view the tenth has been held in all time as the fit proportion of a man's worldly goods to be given to God. This practice is not first inculcated in the Mosaic law: it obtained as well in the primeval religion of the patriarchs (Gen 14:20, 28:22), and among the religious institutes of the Gentiles at large (Herodotus, Melpom., 152; Diod. Sic, xx., 14). After the first-fruits, a tenth of the produce constituted the great or first tithe. Another tenth, called "the second tithe," was presented at the temple, but enjoyed by the offerers. This was done two years successively; but in the third year such tithes might be consumed at home, in acts of hospitality to the poor (Deut 14:28,29, 26:12-15). The Levites themselves paid tithes (Num 18:25-32).

6. While some things consecrated might be redeemed, those that were given absolutely, by an especial devotement, could not. These came under the denomination of cherem (Lev 27).



The whole life of the chosen people of God was to be consecrated to Him who gave it; and among the appointments designed to promote this end was the recurrence of stated seasons of religious solemnities, by which the years of their personal history were hallowed and made happy. These occasions were termed chaggim, "feasts"; moadey-Jehovah, "the festivals of the Lord," Gr. ai eortai Kuriou, Onk., moadaya da Yeya. The term moadey-Jehovah was only given to such days on which holy assemblies, mikra kodesh, were held, and a meeting, moed, with God took place. The festivals commemorated the dealings of God with them and their fathers; they kept before the people the great truths of their religion; they promoted and sanctified their social intercourse, and strengthened the sentiment of their common nationality.

Several additional feasts are mentioned in subsequent parts of the Bible, ordained only by ecclesiastical authority; but those Divinely appointed in the Pentateuch may be arranged in two classes,—the Sabbatical, and the Historical, or commemorative festivals.

I. In the former class are included,

1. The Seventh Day, Shabbath la-Yehovah, "the Sabbath of the Lord"; yom hashshevihi Shabbath Shabbathon, "the seventh day, a Sabbath of Repose" (Exo 20:10; Lev 23:3); sabbaton anapausis. [The Christian Church claims also an interest in the Sabbath, as a weekly season of repose from the toils of this world, and a sacred opportunity for advancing our preparation for a better one. Recognising the moral nature of the institution, attested by its place in the requirements of the Decalogue, the canon of morality for every nation and every age, and the reference to it in the annals of the Genesis, where it stands historically recognised as ordained and observed so long before the rise of the Mosaic dispensation, she learns to reverence the Sabbath as an ordinance for all humanity, "made for MAN," and therefore coeval and continued with the human race; blessed of God at the first; still blessed; and a fruitful means of blessing to the individual, the family, and the nation by whom it is rationally and religiously observed.]

2. The Feast of Trumpets, shabbathon, zekeron teruah, "a rest, a memorial of sounding"; Onk., nechacha, dukeran yabala; Gr. anapausis, mnemosune salpiggon, "a rest, a memorial of trumpets." A festival which came in with the new moon of the seventh month, Tishri. This was the Rosh hashanah, the commencement of the civil year. It was ushered in by religious solemnities commemorative of the mercy of Him who is "our Help in ages past, our Hope for years to come." It should be observed, however, that it has been disputed whether the distinction between the ecclesiastical and civil year is not a post-Mosaic one. Some, too, think they discern in the festival of the seventh month's new moon a type of the future renovation of Israel. The moon is the scriptural emblem of the Church; the darkened moon, of a Church in apostasy. The new moon, as she turns again to the sun, brightens once more under his beams (Isa 60:1, 20).

3. The Sabbatical Year; once in seven years, when there should be Shabbath Shabbathon la-arets, " a Sabbath of Repose to the land"; Onkelos, neyach shemittha le-arah, "a repose of remission to the land." This also has been regarded as a type of the repose to be enjoyed by the earth in the seventh age, the Sabbath of time. The assurance of an adequate supply for the wants of the people, notwithstanding the cessation of agriculture in the seventh year, by the superabundant harvest yielded in the sixth, is one of the material guarantees of the Divine legation of Moses (Lev 25:1-7, 17, 20; Deut 15:1-10).

4. After the lapse of seven sabbatical, or forty-nine, years came, on the tenth day of Tishri, the Great Year of Redemption and release: Yobel, or, Shenath ha Yobel, Onkelos, Yobela, "the year of Jubilee," Gr. etos tes apheseos, "the year of remission," apheseos semasla, "the signal of release or liberation." The primary object of this institution was the readjustment of such interests of personal liberty, and landed or any real property, as had been disturbed in the past interval of years. And this gives the best meaning to the term "Jubilee," as coming from kobil, "to cause to bring back, or recall"; though others, going back to the root of the word in yabal, "to flow like water" with fulness and impetuosity, refer it to the flowing, swelling note of the trumpet which ushered in the year. Leviticus 25:9: "Thou shalt make the" shophar teruah, "the sounding peal of the trumpet to pass through the land; it shall be Yobel to you."

It is disputed whether the Jubilee was celebrated in the forty-ninth year or that which followed. The Divine ordinance certainly defines the fiftieth to be the year (Lev 25:11).

At this "time of restitution" the Hebrew bondsman returned free to his own family, and real property which had been mortgaged reverted to its hereditary owners. The conditions and regulations are given in Leviticus 25. Loans, too, were released in the Sabbatical year (Deut 15:2,9); a privilege which was no doubt extended to the debtor in the greater one of the Jubilee.

All Christians see in the Jubilee a foreshadow of the "good things to come." It spoke, with a perpetual prophecy, of that "acceptable year of the Lord" which the Saviour of mankind declared that He Himself had been sent to preach (Luke 4:14-21). The Jubilean note was the prelude to that of the Gospel trumpet which proclaims the world redeemed, and calls upon the captive to cast aside his chains, and to go forth, made free from sin. As the Jubilee trumpet went through the land, so must the sound of the Gospel be made to be heard through all the peopled earth, that the nations "may be turned from darkness to light, and from the power of Satan unto God, to receive remission of sins, and an inheritance among the sanctified." So too, with regard to the fate of Israel, there comes a clay when "the great trumpet shall be blown, and they shall come which were ready to perish in the land of Assyria, and the outcasts in the land of Egypt, and shall worship the Lord in the holy mount at Jerusalem" (Isa 27:13; Matt 24:31). And, finally, we read of the trumpet that will sound when time has run the cycle of its ages, and the captivity of the grave be ended, and the risen dead, who are "counted worthy to obtain that world," will be put in possession of the "incorruptible inheritance which passeth not away" (1 Cor 15:52; Job 19:25,26; Matt 25:34). These are the Sabbatical Feasts of the Lord.

II. Of the Commemorative Festivals, the precedence belongs to

1. The Passover; as founded on an event which forms the epoch of the national history of the Hebrew people,—their exodus from Egypt, and the initiation of their ecclesiastical year (Exo 12:2). The appellations, Pesach, Onkelos, Pascha, signify "a passing over, a sparing, or protection"; Pesach la Yehovah, "the Lord's Passover"; Onk., Pascha kedem Yeya, "the Passover before the Lord" (Exo 12:11); Sept., Pascha Kuriou. This name specifies the Passover in its strict sense; the night-feast itself; a. Preceded by the selection, on the tenth of Nisan, of the lamb, or kid, seh, Onkelos, immar, Gr. probaton, which was to be faultless, tamim, Onk., shelim, Gr. teleion; a male, zakar, of the year, ben shanah, either min hakkebashim, from the lambs, or min ha izzim, from the goats, b. The putting away of all leavened bread, chomets, Onk., chamira, Gr. zume. c. The immolation of the victim, as a sacrifice, zebach ha pesach, on the fourteenth of Nisan at evening; [literally, beyn ha-arbayim, "between the two evenings"; Onkelos, beyn shemshaya, "between the suns"; Peschito, b'amarobai shemlsho, "at the passing over of the sun": all these forms of expression, as well as a similar one among the Arabians, being idioms for "the afternoon," or the interval between the passing of the sun from the meridian and his final disappearance below the horizon. Among the Hebrew commentators, Kimchi, Raschi, and, before them, Saadja Gaon coincide in this view. The Talmud more narrowly defines "the first evening" as the time when the heat of the day begins to abate, towards the close of the afternoon, about three hours before sunset, at which latter "the second evening" begins.] d. Some of the blood, on the first Passover in Egypt, was sprinkled with a bunch of hyssop on the mezuzoth, "two side-posts," and on the mashekoph, or "lintel" of the door. e. It was roasted entire, on two spits thrust through it, the one lengthwise, the other transversely passing the longitudinal one near the fore legs; the two spits taking thus the form of a cross. f. It was eaten as a family meal with suitable guests. g. It was eaten with unleavened bread, matssoth, and with merorim, "bitter herbs," the tokens of the affliction they had endured in the house of bondage.

The festival was prolonged during the week, with the modified name of the Feast of Unleavened Bread, Chag hammatssoth, Gr. eorte ton azumon (Exo 13:6,7). The term Passover is given to the entire feast, and in common parlance to eat the unleavened cakes was to "eat the passover" (Deut 16:3. Compare Luke 22:1, and John 18:28; where "passover" does not mean the supper, which had transpired on the preceding night, but the unleavened cakes, which could not be eaten by those who were ceremonially defiled; a remark which serves to obviate an alleged contradiction in the Gospels.) On the second of the seven days, the corn harvest being ready for the sickle, the sheaf as the first fruits was reaped, and presented as a wave offering before the Lord. See on the minchoth.

The Passover in its mystical aspects was, (1.) A commemoration of the great national deliverance at the Exodus. (2.) A sacrament of renewed allegiance to God, as their Theocratic King; or a yearly ratification of the covenant between Jehovah and His people. (3.) A type of Redemption by the Messiah. The Christian Church, by inspired authority, regards the paschal lamb as an image of the Lamb of God who taketh away the sin of the world; the Victim slain to redeem us from the bondage of corruption into the glorious liberty of the children of God; and the sheaf, springing from the grain seed which had died in the earth, and presented to God, as a type of His resurrection, who was delivered for our offences to death and the grave, and raised up for our justification. The sheaf was presented "on the morrow after the Sabbath" (Lev 23:15), "the first day of the week" (Luke 24:1). On that day Jesus rose. Behold the fulfilment of the Paschal type! "Christ our Passover is sacrificed for us" (1 Cor 5:7). "Now is Christ risen from the dead, and become the First Fruits of them that slept" (1 Cor 15:20). (4.) The Jews contemplate the Passover as a prophetic signal of their future release and restoration to Canaan. They see that this prospective deliverance is associated in the prophecies with the memory of that from Egypt, as a Divine pledge of its accomplishment. Thus Micah 7:11-20: "In that day thy walls are to be built. In that day the decree" (which had consigned thee to captivity) "shall be put afar off. In that day they shall come to thee from Assyria, and from the cities, and from sea to sea, and from mountain to mountain...Feed thy people with thy rod, which have dwelt solitarily in the wood; let them feed in the midst of Carmel, in Bashan and in Gilead, as in the days of old. According to" (or as in) "the days of thy coming out of Egypt will I show unto him marvellous things. The nations will see, and be confounded in all their might; they shall be afraid of the Lord our God, and shall fear because of Thee. Who is a God like unto Thee, that pardoneth iniquity, and passeth by the transgression of the remnant of His inheritance? He retaineth not His anger for ever, because He delighteth in mercy. He will turn again, He will have compassion upon us; and Thou wilt cast all their sins into the depths of the sea. Thou wilt perform the truth unto Jacob, and the mercy to Abraham, which Thou hast sworn unto our fathers from the days of old."

This prophetic bearing is not lost sight of in the grand Paschal ritual now, and for ages past, in use among the Jews. From a recitative—too long to be quoted in full—which occurs in that service, we will render the following illustrative sentences:—

  • "At Passover the faithful sang a hymn: And the Lord saved on that day. At the Pesach in Egypt.
  • At Passover a voice shall be heard from on high: Israel shall be saved in the Lord with eternal salvation. At the Pesach to come.
  • At Passover the redeemed went out with an uplifted hand, and Israel saw the hand. At the Pesach in Egypt.
  • At Passover with the greatness of His glorious power the Lord will put forth His hand the second time. At the Pesach to come.
  • At Passover the multitude of His armies with goodly wealth walked on dry ground in the midst of the sea. At the Pesach in Egypt.
  • At Passover the Lord will wave His hand with a tempestuous wind, and will dry up the tongue of the Egyptian sea (Isa 11:15). At the Pesach to come.
  • At Passover came the sharp storm, ordained (to overwhelm) the camp of the Egyptians, with the fiery pillar and the cloud. At the Pesach in Egypt.
  • At Passover will be new wonders upon those of old, "blood and fire and pillars of smoke" (Joel 3:3). At the Pesach to come.
  • At Passover he was arrayed to destroy His foes: but the sons of Israel went out with an uplifted hand. At the Pesach in Egypt.
  • At Passover will the cup of salvation and peace (be ours:) for (He hath said), With joy shall ye be led forth and with peace (Isa 55:12). At the Pesach to come.
  • At Passover he completed to destroy the Anamim (Egyptians); for there was not a house where there was not one dead. At the Pesach in Egypt.
  • At Passover the nations will imagine vainly to strive (with the Messiah:) and this will be the plague. At the Pesach to come.
  • At Passover the Lord opened all the (closed) gates (of the Egyptians:) but passed over the doors (of Israel). At the Pesach in Egypt.
  • The Great One and the Ruler hath given the Passover for a sign of protection and deliverance, escape and salvation. At the Pesach to come.
  • At the Passover the peculiar people were confirmed to be free: for the Lord fought for them against the Egyptians. At the Pesach in Egypt.
  • A Passover is yet to be for the redemption of the captives: and the Lord will go forth and fight against the nations (Zech 14:16). At the Pesach to come.
  • At Passover He darkened to His enemies the shining lights: but all the sons of Israel had light. At the Pesach in Egypt.
  • At Passover there shall be favour by the Word of Him who formed thee: Arise, shine, for thy light cometh. At the Pesach to come.
  • At Passover they praised Him for His strength and for His might: for the Lord had redeemed His people. At the Pesach in Egypt.
  • At Passover will the praise of His power be set forth: Our Redeemer, the Lord of Hosts is His Name. At the Pesach to come.'"

    (Congregation and reader together.)

    "At the Passover He will add salvation to salvation: He will remember His covenant to save the people brought nigh to Him in love. Who is like Thee among the mighty, Lord? Who is like Thee, glorious in holiness, awful in praises, doing marvels? Thy children saw Thy Majesty, Thou Divider of the sea before Moses!"
    (Machor, Seder Pesach, Service for the Seventh Night)

  • 2. The seven weeks after Pascha were occupied with the labours of harvest, on the conclusion of which the second of the annual pilgrim festivals took place. This was the chag ha-shabuoth, "the Feast of Weeks," Onkelos, chagga de shabuaya, Gr. eorte ebdomadon. Commencing on the fiftieth day from the second day of the Passover week (Lev 23:15), this anniversary among the later Jews took the name of the Pentecost, chamishim yom (v 16), emera tes pentekostes; also the Feast of Harvest or Ingathering, and the Day of the Firstfruits (Num 28:26). Its observance combined, (1.) The commemoration of the bounty of Providence in the harvest ingathered, of which the public token was the wave-offering of the two loaves made of the new corn; and, (2.) As man liveth not by bread only, but by every word of the Lord, their thanksgiving for the revelation of His Law at Mount Sinai.

    It was at this Feast of Weeks at Jerusalem, attended by the men of the home land of Israel, and by devout proselytes of many Gentile nations, that the Christian Pentecost was inaugurated (Acts 2), when the Divine Spirit wrote the Law again, not on tables of stone, but on the living heart. "Whereof the Holy Ghost is a witness to us: for after that He had said before, This is the covenant that I will make with them after those days, saith the Lord: I will put my laws into their hearts, and in their minds will I write them: and their sins and iniquities will I remember no more." Then too was ushered in that Feast of Ingathering, which the church has, or should have, celebrated ever since in a perpetual Harvest of Souls. The three thousand of the first Pentecost were the First Fruits presented to the Lord of that consummation to be witnessed, when "all Israel shall be saved, with the fulness of the Gentiles."

    3. The Feast of Tabernacles (chag ha sukkoth, Onkelos, chagga de metalya, "the feast of shades or bowers," Sept., eorte skenon, St. John and Josephus, skenopegia) commenced on the 15th of Tishri, and continued seven days. As indicated by the name, it was intended to commemorate the tabernacle life of their fathers in the wilderness; in doing which, every family took their meals each day in a temporary booth, awning, or summer bower,* either in the garden or upon the flat roof of the house. The vintage and fruit harvest being now completed, the public thanksgiving for the mercies of the past year contributed to the cheerful tone of the season.

    * See the Palestine Targum on Leviticus 23, and the Mishna, treatise Sukkah.
    The observances of the Feast of Tabernacles had a peculiar grandeur. At the temple altar the sacrifices were on an unusual scale, as laid down in Numbers 29, where it will be seen that in addition to the other victims prescribed the bullocks offered during the seven days amounted to seventy; an oblation which the Jews regarded as a sacrifice offered on behalf of the nations of the world at large.

    A procession moved each day round the altar court, holding in their hands the lulab and the citron, and chanting the Hosannah passages of Psalm 118. On the seventh day the procession was repeated seven times. The lulab, which was a wreath or bunch of small branches bound together, and carried in the hand instar sceptra, consisted, if we read rightly Leviticus 23:40, of, 1. The branches of the palm, kappoth temarim, Onk., lulabin, Syr., lebavotho de dekelo, Sept., kalluntra phoinikon. 2. Branches of the myrtle, anaph ets aboth, i. e., the "bough of a bushy tree," (Sept., kladous xulou daseis Lat., ramos ligni densos), which the Jews consider as a term for the myrtle, by which Onkelos and the Syriac translators render it. 3. Willows of the brook, arbey nachal, Onk., arbin di nechal, Sept., iteai, Lat. salices .

    There are poetical, if not mystical, ideas associated with these images. The myrtle is the emblem of justice. See the Targum on Esther 2:7, where we read, "The just are compared to the myrtle." The willow is the emblem of affliction; the palm, of victory. In the Apocalypse St. John beholds the just made perfect, waving the palm, without the willow.

    In the illuminated court of the temple "the Psalms of Degrees" were chanted by an immense choir of Levites: and on the seventh or Great Day of the Feast was the solemnity of the libation of water, drawn in a golden vase from the fountain of Siloam, and poured out by the priest at the altar, the whole assembly joining in the Song of Salvation given in the twelfth chapter of Isaiah. It appears from Bereshith Rabba and the Jerusalem Talmud that the Jews regarded the water as an emblem of the pure and purifying Law, the giving of which they celebrated with what they called simchath-Torah, "the rejoicing for the Law": but further, that the joy then cherished in their bosoms predisposed them for the reception of the Holy Spirit; so that Siloah's well became to them like a means of receiving the grace of the Divine Spirit. But our Saviour, in the solemn words proclaimed by Him on the Great Day of the last Feast of Tabernacles before His death, announced the privilege of those who believe in Him to have the purifying Spirit within themselves, an interior fount of life (John 7:37).

    In the prophecy of Zechariah, chapter 14:16, it is intimated that when Jerusalem in her future days of blessing shall become the joy of the earth, the people of God will go up thither from time to time, and from many lands, to celebrate a festival which, from its joyful character, will bear a resemblance to, and is indeed called by the name of, the Feast of Tabernacles.

    But the passing generations of the good who are strangers and pilgrims upon earth, with no continuing city, but tenants for a time of the frail, fading tabernacle of the body, are looking for and hastening on to a city of habitation whose Maker and Builder is God. Their pilgrimage ends when "the holy, who do His commandments," enter the gates of those blessed abodes. We transfer, in faith and hope, to the eternal Jerusalem what is written of the best days and best blessings of the earthly one. "Look upon Zion, the city of our solemnities: thine eyes shall behold Jerusalem a quiet habitation; thine eyes shall see the King in His beauty, in the land afar off."

    III. Thus much for the Festivals: the only Fast prescribed in the Pentateuch is that on the Day of Atonement; when the sins of the whole people were spread before God in penitential confession, accompanied by the sacrifices which set forth the great means of expiation. This august solemnity transpired five days before the Feast of Tabernacles, that is to say, on the tenth day of the month Tishri, which took on that account the appellation of Taenith Gadol, "the Great Fast," and Yom Kippur, "the Day of Expiation," or simply but emphatically YOMA, "the Day." In this great transaction every Israelite was bound to take a part (Lev 23:27-29). The twenty-four hours constituting the day, from the evening, just after sunset, or, as it was held, as soon as three stars could be counted in the sky, till the following evening at the same time, were marked by a rigid fast:* no food, no fire, no bathing, no work: the people went barefoot, and all was silence and humiliation. At home each member of the family was occupied in the Word of God, in self-examination, and in solitary prayer; till as many as could find standing-room in the neighbourhood of the temple engaged in the long service at which the high priest officiated in person. For the ritual itself compare Leviticus 16:1-34, 23:26-32; Numbers 29:7-11. The principal terms connected with it have been already defined. The only one which now calls for remark is the epithet given to the goat upon which fell the lot to live, while its companion fell under the doom of death. The animal which was sent away alive is designated Azazel. The Divine directory, Leviticus 16:8, reads, "And Aharon shall cast lots upon the two goats; one lot for the Lord, and the other lot for Azazel. And Aharon shall bring the goat upon which the Lord's lot fell, and offer him for a sin-offering," literally ve-asahu chattah, "and shall make him to be sin." (Compare 2 Cor 5:21.) "But the goat on which the lot fell for Azazel, he shall set before the Lord alive, to propitiate upon him," le shalach otho la azazel ha midbarah, "to send him for," or to, "Azazel, towards the wilderness." There is, it must be confessed, an air of mystery over the expressions, which seems to excuse the conflict of opinions—I may say, fancies—which have early and late divided the word-critics of the Bible upon the signification of the name Azazel. We will mention the principal.

    * "Before the Lord who sitteth above the circle of the heavens may our streaming tears, like a flood on the earth, wash out the handwriting of our sins.

    "We stand all day before the Lord of the whole world, from the rising of the morn, until the coming forth of the stars."

    Moses Aden Ezra: Neila for the Day of Atonement.

    1. It is an appellation of the Divine Being. Thus the Syriac version of the text gives the name as Azaza-el, "the Mighty God." In the Latin translation of the Peschito there is a gloss to the same effect: "La Azaza-el, i. e., Deo Fortissimo." But it must be seen that if this interpretation be the true one, the casting of lots would be a useless formality, as each goat would equally fall to the Deity, either as "the Lord," or as "the Mighty God."

    2. It was the name of a place, to which the living goat was led away. See here Onkelos and the Palestinian Targums on Leviticus 16:8, and Rashi's commentary on the text.

    3. It is a personal name, not for the Almighty, but for Satan, or one of the fallen angels. The name Azalzel does occur in that way in the Book of Enoch, and in rabbinical writings, as in Menachem on Leviticus; and the Boraitha of Eliezer, where the four most powerful demons are named Sammael, Azazel, Azael, and Machazeel. But though in the oriental demonology the name might have been applied to Satan, it does not follow that the evil being had anything to do with the scape-goat on the day of atonement; either in the animal being made his representative, or in its being sent to him. In the former case the sins of Israel were confessed, so to speak, over the head of the devil; in the second, the infernal spirit is elevated in the transaction to a co-partnership with the Almighty: both the one notion and the other are too repugnant to our perceptions of propriety to be admissible.

    4. A fourth and, as it appears to us, a far more eligible opinion is, that which, deriving it from az, "a goat," and azal, a verb which signifies "to go away," makes the name Azazel descriptive of the fate of the living goat, as antithetical to that of the animal that had fallen under the doom of death. The one died at the altar; the other goes forth to its native wilderness alive. Viewing the solemnities of the Day of Atonement in their evangelical aspects, this meaning of the name has the greater recommendation. It has also the authority of the Septuagint, which translates Azazel by ho apopompaios, "the dismissed one"; from apopempo, "to send away." The animals, though two in number, are yet but parts of one provision for a symbolic atonement for sin; and conjointly represent the expiatory work of the One Redeemer, who, in bearing away the sin of the world, was delivered to death for our offences, and raised to life for our justification. So this mystical goat dies, and yet lives: but as a single animal could not exhibit the two phases of the truth to be set forth in the type, two were appointed; the one to die, the other to go away alive. "We have redemption in His blood, even the remission of sins." "As far as the east is from the west, so far hath He removed our transgressions from us."



    I. Torah, Torath Yehovah; from yarah, "to instruct": the entire body of Divine precepts which form the life of righteousness; Targum, oraitha da Yeya; Syr., Peschito, Nomuseh de Morio; Sept., ho nomos tou Kuriou.

    Berith, Habberith, "the covenant"; dibree habberith; Onk, yath pithgamee keyama, "the words of the covenant" (Exo 34:28).

    Asereth haddebarim, "the ten words"; Onk., asera pithgamin, Gr. oi deka logoi, "the Decalogue" (Exo 34:28).

    Mitsvah, "a commandment," plur., mitsvoth; root, tsava, "to set"; (so, law, lez, legis, is, etymologically, "that which is laid down"); Sept., entole.

    Hok, plur., hukkim (the H, cheth, strong guttural), "a statute, a fixed appointment, a decree"; Onk., keyam; Sept., prostagma.

    Pikkudim, "prescriptions, rules," dikaiomata.

    Mishpat, pl., mishpatim or shephatim, "a judicial decision," from shaphat, "to distinguish, determine"; Onk., dinaya, pl., Sept., dikaioma.

    Din, Chal. dina, "a judgment, a matter to be adjudged"; dike. Edah, "testimony"; Eduth, "an ordinance"; emphatically, the Law on the tablets.

    Mishmaroth, "things to be observed"; from shamar, " to keep watch over."

    II. Ketubah, "marriage contract." Mekadesh, also Kedushin, "Betrothment," from kadash, "to set apart."

    Eres, "marriage vow," from aras, "to betroth." Mochar, "dowry" (Gen 29:18,27).

    Kallah, "a bride," (because crowned?). Chatan, "a bridegroom." Choten, "a wife's father." Cham, "a husband's father."

    Pelegesh, "a concubine," plur., pilagshim, a secondary wife; married, but not with the ceremonies of the usual marriage. The name given to the various wives in a family cursed with polygamy was zeroth, "troubles, adversaries, or rivals" (1 Sam 1:6), because, as R. David Kimchi informs us in his note on that text, they are most commonly causes of trouble, jealousy, and vexation to each other.

    Yabam, a brother who was to marry the childless widow of his deceased relative. Yeboom, the espousals of a yabam (Deut 25).

    Chalitsa, the ceremony of taking off the shoe, if the brother should refuse the yeboom (Deut 25:9).

    Get, plur., gittin, "a writing of divorce."

    Nin, "offspring, posterity," from nun, "to flourish." Zera, the same as nin.

    Bekor, "the firstborn," prototokos. Bekorah, "primogeniture."

    Ben, "a son"; Chal, Bar. Bath, "a daughter."

    Yonek, "a sucking infant." Gamul, the same. Taph (collective noun), "little ones, children, a family." Yeled, "a child, boy." Nahar, "a youth"; fem., naarah. Elem, "a marriageable youth."

    Almanah, "a widow." Yatom, "an orphan."

    Mishpacha, "a family," as a sub-division of a Shebet, "tribe."

    Beth-Ab, or Aboth, "a number of families related."

    III. Aloof, an Edomite "duke," leader, a chief; root, alaph (Gen 36:40); Onk., Rabba; Sept., egemon, "a chief of a tribe," phularches.

    Nasi, "a prince, magistrate." Rosh beth aboth, "a chief of the house of the fathers." Roshee shebatim, "heads of tribes."

    Amarkella (Chaldee, found only in the Targums), "a chief." According to Rashi the word means "a treasurer."

    II. Amarkol amarkella. (Glossary)
    We have said that Rashi defines this appellation as meaning a Treasurer; it should be added that others consider it an amplification of the word Markol; i.e., mar, "a lord," and kol, "all"; "a chief ruler."]

    Shoter, "an overseer." Shophet, "a judge"; root, shaphat.

    Sar, "a captain"; root, sarar, "to rule." Saree alaphim, meoth, chamishim, asaroth, "captains of thousands, hundreds, fifties, and tens."

    Kahal, "a church," ecclesia. Sod, "an assembly," comitia.

    Edah, "a congregation"; Zikney ha edah, "the elders of the congregation"; Nesiey ha edah, "the princes of the same" (Num 11:16); the seventy elders; regarded by the Jews as the primary germ of the Sanhedrin.

    Baal, "a master." Baalah, "a mistress." Ebed, "a servant." Shiphahath, "a maid-servant."

    Gar, "a stranger"; from gur, "to sojourn."

    Shebuah, "an oath." Temurah, "an exchange, commutation, compensation, the thing exchanged." Kopher nephesh, or piddion nephesh, "indemnification," or commutation for punishments incurred by injuring others (Exo 21).

    Goel, from gaal, redemit, vindicavit, "a redeemer or avenger"; the right to redeem possessed by the nearest of kin; Chal., Geal (Num 35:19; Lev 25:25; compare Ruth 3:12,13).

    Punishments.—Gemul, tagmul, "retribution." Pekudah, "visitation."

    Bekoreth, "scourging"; from bakar, "an ox"; because inflicted with the ox-tail; others, from bakar, visitare.

    Sekilah, regimah, "stoning"; from sakal, and ragam, lapidare.

    Serepha, "burning,"—either the dead body, or branding the living one.

    Hereg, "beheading." Chenek, "strangling." Teliya, "hanging" the dead body for exposure.

    Kareth, "cutting off from the people"; excommunication, sometimes bodily death (Lev 23:29).

    Nidui, cherem, shammatha, the three degrees of excommunication.

    IV. Yekehath, "obedience." Shemiah, or Mishmah, "hearkening to," in the sense of obeying; root, shema, " to listen."

    Asham, "a sin." Chattaah, "transgression," from chata, "to slide, stumble, or miss the mark." Pesha, "revolt, sedition"; root, pasha, "to rebel." Tahor, "clean," Chal., dakia, Gr. katharos. Tame, "unclean," Chal., mesaah, Gr. akathartos. Clean and unclean, as a condition of the human body, or the species of an animal, as judged of by the standard of the Levitical law. Toah, "apostasy" from God; root, taah, "to wander." Abar, "to transgress a limit." Avon, "iniquity, moral distortion"; root, avah, "to be perverse, deal perversely." Sarah, "a deviation from the law"; root, sur, "to turn away, decline from." Evel, avlah, "iniquity, injustice"; root, aval. Shegaga, "an error, inadvertency"; root, shagag or shagah, "to err." Shegiah, "a sin of ignorance." Sheker, "prevarication, falsity"; from shakar, "to lie." Nebalah, "wickedness, folly"; root, nabal. Zlmmah, "crime, mischief"; root, zamam, "to devise or purpose evil." Remiah, "remissness, unfaithfulness"; root, ramah, in Piel, "to deceive." Maal, "faithlessness"; root, maal, "to deal treacherously." Risha and reshah, "guilt, wickedness"; root, rasha, "to be guilty, liable to punishment." In the Targums choba, chobtha, from chob, precavit, debitor fuit. Beliyaal, "worthlessness," from beli, "without," and yaal, "usefulness." Ben-beliyaal, ish beliyaal, "a worthless man"; Onk., "a son of wickedness"; Sept., paranomos.

    V. Teshubah, "conversion"; root, shub, "to return." Charata, (Chaldee,) "penitence." Vidui, "confession"; root, yada, "to know," Piel, "to make known."

    Kippurim, "amends, atonement"; root, kaphar, in Piel, "to expiate."

    Emunah, "faith"; root, aman, "to stand firm, to be true"; in Hiphil, heemin, "to confide in, lean upon." Betach, "trust, confidence"; root, batach, "to confide in, to be quiet."

    Selicha, "pardon"; root, salach, to forgive." Zedakah, "justification or righteousness"; root, zadak, "to be right." Of Abraham it is written (Gen 15:6), Veheemin ba-Yehovah, vaiyachshebeha* lo Zedakah: "And he believed in the Lord, and He counted it to him for righteousness." Compare Romans 4:3, as quoted from the Septuagint. Onkelos, Vehemin be Memra da Yeya ve chashbah leh lizeko: "And he believed in the Word of the Lord, and He accounted it to him for justification."

    * Root, chashab, "to think, judge, account, or reckon as anything."
    Tikevah, "hope, expectation"; root, kavah, "to wait for."

    Ahabah, ahava, "love," root, ahab, "to love or delight in."

    Chesed, "kindness"; Rachamim, "tender mercies"; root, racham, "to love."

    Ratson, "benevolence"; root, ratsah, placere. Emeth, "truth, veracity."

    Kodesh, Kedushah, "holiness"; root, kadash, "to be sacred," Hiphil, "to sanctify."

    Teshuah, "salvation"; also Yesha, root, yasha, "to save, deliver, succour."

    Yesharah, "rectitude, uprightness"; root, yasha; from which, as is commonly thought, comes the name Jeshurun, given in the Pentateuch to Israel; though others connect it with the Arabic root yasara, "to prosper, be wealthy," like the Hebrew ashar, "to be blessed."

    Hithhalek eth ha-Elohim, "to walk with God" (Gen 5:24). Hithhalek lipnei, "to walk before Him" (Gen 17:1). Hithhalek acheri, "to walk after, be obedient to" (Deut 8:19). Halek im bekeri, "to walk contrary to, be rebellious against God" (Lev 26:40).

    Neder, "a vow"; a voluntary engagement, or sacred promise, made either as an acknowledgment of benefits received, or as a means of obtaining them (Gen 28:22). Onkelos, keyam; Sept., euche. Nedarim were either affirmative, in the devotement of the person or one's property to God, or negative, in the vow of abstinence from things in themselves lawful. Such was the vow of the Nazir (Lev 25; Num 6:2). "A certain man came to me* from the south, intending to take the vow of a Nazarite: he was beautiful in countenance, and his hair waved in graceful locks. My son, I said, what moves thee to destroy thy hair? He replied, I am a shepherd to my father in my native place. I went to draw water from the fountain, and looking at the reflection of my own face in the water, vanity seized me, and became a temptation to hinder my future happiness. Wretch, said I then to myself, art thou proud of that which is not thine, and which must soon be dust and ashes? So now I swear that I go not hence until these locks be cut off. And I arose, and kissed his head, and said, May such Nazarites increase in Israel!" [Talmud.)

    * Simeon ha Zadik, high priest.
    Tephillah, "prayer"; root, phallel, in Hithpa. in the sense of speravit; Gr. proseuche; Onk., Tepilla. Bakkasha, "supplication"; root, bakash, "to seek earnestly, strive for." Sheelah, "a petition"; root, shaal, "to ask."

    Berakah, "blessing, benediction"; root, barak, "to pronounce a blessing"; Onk., Birketha; Gr. eulogia.

    Forms of benediction. Meborak Adonai, "Be thou blessed of the Lord." Birekath Adonai aleka, "The blessing of the Lord be upon thee." Adonai immeka, "The Lord be with thee." Shalom leka, "Peace be with thee."

    The Divine benediction. Hebrew text, Yebarekka, Yehovah veyishmereka, "The Lord bless thee, and keep thee." Yaer Yehovah panaif eleyka, vichunneka, "The Lord make His face to shine upon thee, and be Gracious unto thee." Yissa Yehovah panaif eleyka, veyasem leka shalom, "The Lord lift up His countenance upon thee, and confer upon thee peace" (Num 6:24). Compare the passage in the Targums of Onkelos and Palestine.

    In the edifying service for the Day of Atonement in the Hebrew Machsor, this most holy benediction is employed with a devotional comment on each word, consisting of some illustrative text from the Scriptures. Thus:—

    1. May He bless thee: "The Lord who made heaven and earth bless thee out of Zion."

    The Lord: "O Lord our Lord, how excellent is Thy Name in all the earth!"

    And keep thee: "Preserve me, God; for in Thee do I put my trust."

    2. Make shine: "God be gracious unto us, and bless us, and cause His face to shine upon us."

    The Lord: "The Lord, the Lord God, merciful and gracious, long-suffering, and abundant in goodness and truth."

    His Face: "Turn Thee unto me, and be gracious unto me; for I am alone and afflicted."

    Unto thee: "Unto Thee, Lord, do I lift up my soul."

    And be gracious unto thee: "Behold, as the eyes of servants look unto the hand of their masters, and the eyes of a maiden to the hand of her mistress, so our eyes wait upon the Lord our God, until He be gracious unto us."

    3. May He lift up: "He shall receive a blessing from the Lord, and righteousness from the God of his salvation, and find grace and good understanding in the eyes of God and man."

    The Lord: "Lord, have mercy on us; we have trusted in Thee: be Thou our strength every morning; our salvation in the time of trouble."

    His Face: "Lord, hide not Thy face from me: in the day of my distress incline Thine ear unto me."

    Unto thee: "Unto Thee do I lift up mine eyes, Thou who dwellest in the heavens."

    And give: "And they shall put My Name upon the children of Israel, and I will bless them."

    Thee: "Thine, Lord, is the greatness, and the power, and the glory, and the victory, and the majesty; for all that is in the heaven and in the earth is Thine: Thine is the kingdom, Lord, and Thou art exalted as Supreme above all."

    Peace: "Peace to him that is afar off, and to him that is near, saith the Lord; and I will heal him."



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