Comparison of Pentateuch:
Jewish Publication Society 1917
Targums Onkelos,
Jonathan Ben Uzziel/Palestinian,
Jerusalem Fragments

 

Genesis
Chapter 38

[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10]
[11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] [17] [18] [19] [20]
[21] [22] [23] [24] [25] [26] [27] [28] [29] [30]

 

 

Genesis 37 JPS TOC Comparison TOC Targums TOC Genesis 39
GENESIS 38:1
JPS 38:1 And it came to pass at that time, that Judah went down from his brethren, and turned in to a certain Adullamite, whose name was Hirah.
ONK 38:1 And it was at that time that Jehuda went down from his brethren, and turned aside to an Adulamite man whose name was Hira.
PAL 38:1 It was at that time that Jehuda had gone down from his property, and separated himself from his brethren, and had inclined to a man an Adullemite whose name was Hira,
 
GENESIS 38:2
JPS 38:2 And Judah saw there a daughter of a certain Canaanite whose name was Shua; and he took her, and went in unto her.
ONK 38:2 And Jehuda saw there the daughter of a merchant man whose name was Shuva, and he took her and went in with her;
PAL 38:2 that Jehuda saw there the daughter of a merchant man whose name was Shuva, and he proselyted her, and entered with her.
 
GENESIS 38:3
JPS 38:3 And she conceived, and bore a son; and he called his name Er.
ONK 38:3 and she conceived and bare a son, and he called his name Her;
PAL 38:3 And she conceived and bare a son, and called his name Er,(96) because he was to die without a child.
 
GENESIS 38:4
JPS 38:4 And she conceived again, and bore a son; and she called his name Onan.
ONK 38:4 and she conceived again, and bare a son, and called his name Onan.
PAL 38:4 And she conceived again, and bare a son, and called his name Onan,(97) because his father would have to mourn for him.
 
GENESIS 38:5
JPS 38:5 And she yet again bore a son, and called his name Shelah; and he was at Chezib, when she bore him.
ONK 38:5 And she added again, and bare a son, and called his name Shelah; and he was in Kezib when she bare him.
PAL 38:5 And she added, and bare a son, and called his name Shela, because her husband had forgotten her(98) and was in cessation when she bare him.
JER 38:5 And it was that she ceased.
 
GENESIS 38:6
JPS 38:6 And Judah took a wife for Er his first-born, and her name was Tamar.
ONK 38:6 And Jehuda took a wife for Her his first-born, and her name was Tamar.
PAL 38:6 And Jehuda took a wife for Er his firstborn, a daughter of Shem the great, whose name was Tamar.
 
GENESIS 38:7
JPS 38:7 And Er, Judah's first-born, was wicked in the sight of the LORD; and the LORD slew him.
ONK 38:7 And Her the first-born of Jehuda was evil before the Lord, and the Lord caused him to die.
PAL 38:7 But Er the firstborn of Jehuda was evil before the Lord because he had not given his seed unto his wife, and the anger of the Lord prevailed against him, and the Lord slew him.
 
GENESIS 38:8
JPS 38:8 And Judah said unto Onan: 'Go in unto thy brother's wife, and perform the duty of a husband's brother unto her, and raise up seed to thy brother.'
ONK 38:8 And Jehuda said to Onan, Go in with the wife of thy brother, and associate with her, and raise up seed to thy brother.
PAL 38:8 And Jehuda said unto Onan, Enter thou to thy brother's wife, and marry her, and raise up seed unto the name of thy brother.
 
GENESIS 38:9
JPS 38:9 And Onan knew that the seed would not be his; and it came to pass when he went in unto his brother's wife, that he spilled it on the ground, lest he should give seed to his brother.
ONK 38:9 And Onan knew that after his name the seed would not be called; and it was that when he went in with the wife of his brother, he corrupted his way upon the earth that he might not raise up seed unto his brother;
PAL 38:9 And Onan knew that they would not call the children after his name, and it was, when he entered to the wife of his brother, that he corrupted his work upon the earth, that he might not raise up children to his brother's name.
 
GENESIS 38:10
JPS 38:10 And the thing which he did was evil in the sight of the LORD; and He slew him also.
ONK 38:10 and what he did was evil before the Lord, and he caused him also to die.
PAL 38:10 And what he did was evil before the Lord, and he cut off his days also.
 
GENESIS 38:11
JPS 38:11 Then said Judah to Tamar his daughter-in-law: 'Remain a widow in thy father's house, till Shelah my son be grown up'; for he said: 'Lest he also die, like his brethren.' And Tamar went and dwelt in her father's house.
ONK 38:11 And Jehuda said to Tamar his daughter-in-law, Remain a widow in thy father's house until Shelah my son be grown up. For he said, Lest he also die like his brothers: and Tamar went and dwelt in her father's house.
PAL 38:11 And Jehuda said to Tamar his daughter-in-law, Remain a widow in thy father's house, till Shela my son be grown up. For he said, Lest he also die as his brethren. And Tamar went, and remained in her father's house.
 
GENESIS 38:12
JPS 38:12 And in process of time Shua's daughter, the wife of Judah, died; and Judah was comforted, and went up unto his sheep-shearers to Timnah, he and his friend Hirah the Adullamite.
ONK 38:12 And after many days the daughter of Shuva, Jehuda's wife, died: and Jehuda was comforted; and he went up to the shearers of his sheep, he and Hira the Adulamite his friend unto Timnath.
PAL 38:12 And days multiplied, and the daughter of Shuva, Jehuda's wife, had died, and Jehuda was comforted. And Jehuda went up to the shearing of his flock, he and Hira his friend the Adullemite, to Timnath.
 
GENESIS 38:13
JPS 38:13 And it was told Tamar, saying: 'Behold, thy father-in-law goeth up to Timnah to shear his sheep.'
ONK 38:13 And it was shown to Tamar, saying, Behold, thy father-in-law cometh to Timnath to shear his sheep.
PAL 38:13 And it was told to Tamar, saying, Behold, thy father-in-law cometh up to Timnath to shear his flock.
 
GENESIS 38:14
JPS 38:14 And she put off from her the garments of her widowhood, and covered herself with her veil, and wrapped herself, and sat in the entrance of Enaim, which is by the way to Timnah; for she saw that Shelah was grown up, and she was not given unto him to wife.
ONK 38:14 And she laid aside the dress of her widowhood, and covered herself with a mantle (or a large veil), and adorned herself,(193) and sat in the dividing of Aynin(194) which is in the way to Timnath. For she saw that Shelah had grown up, and she had not been given to him for a wife.
PAL 38:14 And she put the dress of her widowhood from her, and covered herself with a veil, and wrapped herself, and sat in the dividing of the road where all eyes see, upon the way of Timnath. Eor she knew that Shela was grown up, yet she had not been given to him to be his wife.
 
GENESIS 38:15
JPS 38:15 When Judah saw her, he thought her to be a harlot; for she had covered her face.
ONK 38:15 And Jehuda saw her, and thought that she was an outcast, because she had covered her face.
PAL 38:15 And Jehuda saw her; but she seemed in his face as an harlot,(99) because she had provoked him to anger in his house, and Jehuda did not love her.
JER 38:15 For she had enwrapped her face.
 
GENESIS 38:16
JPS 38:16 And he turned unto her by the way, and said: 'Come, I pray thee, let me come in unto thee'; for he knew not that she was his daughter-in-law. And she said: 'What wilt thou give me, that thou mayest come in unto me?'
ONK 38:16 And he declined to her by the way, and said, Give me now to go in unto thee; for he did not know that she was his daughter-in-law. And she said, What wilt thou give me, that thou mayest come to me?
PAL 38:16 And he inclined to her in the way and said, Let me now go in with thee: for he knew not that she was his daughter-in-law. And she said, What wilt thou give me to go in with me?
 
GENESIS 38:17
JPS 38:17 And he said: 'I will send thee a kid of the goats from the flock.' And she said: 'Wilt thou give me a pledge, till thou send it?'
ONK 38:17 And he said, I will send thee a kid of the goats from the flock. And she said, If thou wilt give me a pledge until thou send.
PAL 38:17 And he said, I will send thee a kid of the goats from the flock. And she said, If thou wilt give me a pledge until thou shalt have sent.
 
GENESIS 38:18
JPS 38:18 And he said: 'What pledge shall I give thee?' And she said: 'Thy signet and thy cord, and thy staff that is in thy hand.' And he gave them to her, and came in unto her, and she conceived by him.
ONK 38:18 And he said, What is the pledge that I shall give thee? And she said, Thy seal-ring, and thy scarf,(195) and thy staff that is in thy hand. And he gave to her, and went in to her, and she conceived by him.
PAL 38:18 And he said, What pledge shall I give thee? And she answered, Thy seal, and thy mantle, and thy staff which is in thy hand. And he gave (them) to her, and went in with her; and she conceived by him.
 
GENESIS 38:19
JPS 38:19 And she arose, and went away, and put off her veil from her, and put on the garments of her widowhood.
ONK 38:19 And she arose, and went, and put off the veil from her, and dressed herself in the dress of her widowhood.
PAL 38:19 And she arose and went, and put her veil from her, and put on the dress of her widowhood.
JER 38:19 Her veil.
 
GENESIS 38:20
JPS 38:20 And Judah sent the kid of the goats by the hand of his friend the Adullamite, to receive the pledge from the woman's hand; but he found her not.
ONK 38:20 And Jehuda sent the kid of the goats, by the hand of his friend the Adulamite, to receive the pledge from the hand of the woman; but he could not find her.
PAL 38:20 And Jehuda sent the kid of the goats by the hand of his friend the Adullemite, to bring back the pledge from the hand of the woman; but he found her not.
 
GENESIS 38:21
JPS 38:21 Then he asked the men of her place, saying: 'Where is the harlot, that was at Enaim by the wayside?' And they said: 'There hath been no harlot here.'
ONK 38:21 And he inquired of the men of the place, saying, Where is the harlot who was in Aynin upon the way? And they said to him, There is no harlot here.
PAL 38:21 And he asked the men of the place, saying, Where is the harlot who was in the sight of the eyes by the way? And they said, There is no harlot here.
 
GENESIS 38:22
JPS 38:22 And he returned to Judah, and said: 'I have not found her; and also the men of the place said: There hath been no harlot here.'
ONK 38:22 And he returned to Jehuda, and said, I could not find her; the men of the place also said there is no harlot there.
PAL 38:22 And he returned to Jehuda and said, I could not find her: and the men of the place also said that no harlot was there.
 
GENESIS 38:23
JPS 38:23 And Judah said: 'Let her take it, lest we be put to shame; behold, I sent this kid, and thou hast not found her.'
ONK 38:23 And Jehuda said, Let her take it to her, lest we be in contempt: behold, I sent this kid, and thou hast not found her.
PAL 38:23 And Jehuda said, Lest she should have taken the pledge, lest we become a laughing-stock, behold, I have sent this goat, and thou canst not find her.
 
GENESIS 38:24
JPS 38:24 And it came to pass about three months after, that it was told Judah, saying: 'Tamar thy daughter-in-law hath played the harlot; and moreover, behold, she is with child by harlotry.' And Judah said: 'Bring her forth, and let her be burnt.'
ONK 38:24 And it was three months, and it was showed to Jehuda, saying, Tamar thy daughter-in-law hath committed fornication, and, behold, she is with child by fornication. And Jehuda said, Bring her out, and let her be burned.
PAL 38:24 And it was at the time of three months, that she was known to be with child: and it was told to Jehuda, saying, Tamar thy daughter-in-law hath committed fornication, and, behold, she is with child by fornication. And Jehuda said, Is she not the daughter of a priest? Let her be brought forth and burned.
 
GENESIS 38:25
JPS 38:25 When she was brought forth, she sent to her father-in-law, saying: 'By the man, whose these are, am I with child'; and she said: 'Discern, I pray thee, whose are these, the signet, and the cords, and the staff.'
ONK 38:25 And she was brought out. And she sent to her father-in-law, saying, By the man to whom these belong I am with child. And she said, Acknowledge now, whose are these, the seal, the scarf, and the staff?
PAL 38:25 Tamar was brought forth to be burned, and she searched for the three pledges, but found them not. Uplifting her eyes to the heavens above, she thus said, Mercy I implore from Thee, Lord: answer Thou me in this hour of need, and enlighten mine eyes to find the three witnesses; and I will dedicate unto Thee from my loins three saints, who shall sanctify Thy name, and descend to the furnace of fire in the plain of Dura.

In that hour the Holy One, blessed be He, signed to Michael, who enlightened her eyes, that she found (the witnesses) and took and cast them before the feet of the judges, and said, The man to whom these pledges belong is he by whom I am with child. Yet though I may be burned I do not make him manifest: nevertheless the Lord of the world will cause him in his heart to acknowledge them, and will deliver me from this great judgment.

Now when Jehuda saw them, he recognised them, and said in his heart, It is better for me to be ashamed in this world that passeth away, than be ashamed in the faces of my righteous fathers in the world to come. It is better that I burn in this world by a fire that is extinguished, than burn in the world to come with fire devouring fire. For measure is set against measure.(100) This is according to that which I said to Jakob my father, Know now the robe of thy son; so am I now constrained to hear at the place of judgment, Whose are this seal and mantle and staff?

JER 38:25 Tamar was brought forth to be burned with fire; and she sought the three witnesses, but found them not. She lifted up her eyes on high and said, For mercy I pray before the Lord. Thou art He, Lord God, who answerest the afflicted in the hour of their affliction; answer me in this the hour of my affliction, and I will dedicate to thee three saints in the valley of Dura, Hananya, Mishael, and Azarya.

In that hour the Word of the Lord heard the voice of her supplication and said to Mikael, Descend, and let her eyes have light.... When she saw them, she took them, and cast them before the feet of the judges, saying, By the man to whom these belong I am with child. But though I may be burned, I declare him not, but confide in the Ruler of all the world, the Lord who is witness between me and him, that He will give to the heart of the man to whom these belong, to acknowledge whose are these his ring, and mantle, and staff.

 
GENESIS 38:26
JPS 38:26 And Judah acknowledged them, and said: 'She is more righteous than I; forasmuch as I gave her not to Shelah my son.' And he knew her again no more.
ONK 38:26 And Jehuda acknowledged and said, She is justified in having conceived from me, because I have not given her Shelah my son. And he added not again to know her.
PAL 38:26 And Jehuda acknowledged and said, Tamar is innocent; she is with child by me. And the Bath kol fell from heaven, and said, From before Me was this thing done, and let both be delivered from judgment. And Jehuda said, Because I gave her not to Shela my son, hath this happened to me. But he added not to know her again.
JER 38:26 And Jehuda recognised the three witnesses, and arose upon his feet and said, I pray you, my brethren, and ye men of the house of my fathers, to hear me. With the measure that a man measureth shall it be measured to him; whether good measure or evil; and blessed is every man who confesseth his works. Because I took the coat of Joseph my brother and dipped it into the blood of a goat, and brought it before the feet of my father and said to him, Know now whether this be thy son's coat or not, the measure is according to the measure, and the rule to the rule. Better is it for me to blush in this world than to blush in the world to come; better to burn with a fire that goes out, than to burn in the fire devouring fire. Let Tamar my daughter-in-law be spared. She hath not conceived a child by fornication, but because I did not give to her Shela my son.

The Bath kol came forth from heaven, and said, Both of you are acquitted in the judgment. The thing was from the Lord. And he added not to know her.

 
GENESIS 38:27
JPS 38:27 And it came to pass in the time of her travail, that, behold, twins were in her womb.
ONK 38:27 And it was the time of her giving birth, and, behold, twins were in her womb.
PAL 38:27 But it was in the time of her giving birth, that, behold, twins were in her womb.
 
GENESIS 38:28
JPS 38:28 And it came to pass, when she travailed, that one put out a hand; and the midwife took and bound upon his hand a scarlet thread, saying: 'This came out first.'
ONK 38:28 And it was in giving birth that one of them put forth a hand; and the midwife took and tied scarlet upon his hand, saying, This came the first.
PAL 38:28 And it was in being born that the child stretched forth his hand; and the midwife took it, and bound it with a scarlet thread, saying, This came the first.
 
GENESIS 38:29
JPS 38:29 And it came to pass, as he drew back his hand, that, behold his brother came out; and she said: 'Wherefore hast thou made a breach for thyself?' Therefore his name was called Perez.
ONK 38:29 And it was when he had drawn back his hand that his brother came forth: and she said, How much greater strength is with thee, that thou hast prevailed! And she called his name Pharets.
PAL 38:29 And after the child had withdrawn his hand, behold, his brother came forth, and she said, With what great power hast thou prevailed, and for thee will it be to prevail; for thou wilt possess the kingdom. And she called his name Pharets.
 
GENESIS 38:30
JPS 38:30 And afterward came out his brother, that had the scarlet thread upon his hand; and his name was called Zerah.
ONK 38:30 And afterwards came forth his brother who had the crimson on his hand, and she called his name Zarah.
PAL 38:30 And afterward came forth his brother, upon whose hand was bound the scarlet thread, and she called his name Zarach.
 
Genesis 37 JPS TOC Comparison TOC Targums TOC Genesis 39

 

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